Onde posso encontrar fotos de roupas de músicos europeus pobres ou comuns entre 1500 e 1700

Onde posso encontrar fotos de roupas de músicos europeus pobres ou comuns entre 1500 e 1700

Alguém pode fornecer fotos ou descrições confiáveis ​​de roupas que um modesto músico em qualquer lugar da Europa pode ter usado entre 1500 e 1700? Sei que minha pergunta abrange 200 anos e muitos países. Sinta-se à vontade para restringi-lo, se necessário. Eu pesquisei muitas pinturas por mim mesmo, mas suspeito que elas tendem a representar músicos em roupas extremamente chiques.

Se você puder mostrar que os exemplos abaixo não são de músicos ricos ou que as roupas dos músicos não diferem significativamente das roupas dos outros, você está convidado a fazê-lo.

Parece fácil encontrar exemplos de músicos pintados por Dirk van Baburen 1622: Ou van Baburen 1623:

Infelizmente, não são fotos de corpo inteiro e, a meus olhos destreinados, parecem retratar pessoas ricas. Se a última suposição estiver errada, terei o maior prazer em saber! Para mim, essas penas e chapéus certamente parecem caros.

Caravaggio 1596 também mostra tecidos que me parecem ricos e luxuosos. Suponho que esse pigmento fosse caro, mas estou apenas supondo:

A única imagem um tanto modesta (?) Que pude encontrar foi Dürer 1504:


Para músicos genuinamente pobres, você provavelmente precisa olhar para os músicos de rua. Enquanto o A História da Música do Século XVII de Cambridge notas,

A riqueza relativa dos músicos é difícil de determinar, em parte porque a moeda forte não foi a medida econômica mais importante no período. Além disso, a sorte dos indivíduos pode flutuar acentuadamente ... Alguns músicos morreram na miséria. Outros, no entanto, deixaram propriedades substanciais ...

Essa fonte passa a dar uma ideia da renda em comparação com outras ocupações:

Para Londres, Ian Spink estimou que um músico comum da corte pode esperar receber o mesmo que um membro do clero em melhor situação, um oficial militar ou alguém das artes liberais. Músicos menores, como as garçonetes da cidade, eram mais próximos dos lojistas ou pequenos comerciantes em sua renda, enquanto um músico de rua pode ser indistinguível de um mendigo.

Começando na extremidade inferior do espectro financeiro, a gravura abaixo, de Jacques Bellange, da Lorraine (c. 1575-1616), mostra um músico mendigo.

Fonte: Jacques Bellange - Hurdy-Gurdy Player - WGA01598.jpg "> Jacques Callot (c. 1592 - 1635, também da Lorena) é de um músico mendigo mais bem vestido (1622 ou 1623):

Fonte: BnF Gallica

Músicos de rua eram desprezados e às vezes processados ​​por vadiagem. Londres atraiu um grande número desses vagabundos, tornando as ruas lugares barulhentos enquanto músicos, cantores de baladas, vendedores ambulantes e outros realizavam seus negócios, às vezes desonestamente (trabalhando com batedores de carteira) e às vezes propensos à violência (muitos estavam armados). Cenas como a abaixo (também de Jacques Bellange) não teriam ajudado em sua reputação.

"Um jogador de hurdy-gurdy agarra a garganta de seu oponente esfarrapado e raivoso. Um cachorro agitado, com as garras expostas e soltas em primeiro plano." Fonte: Museu de Belas Artes de San Francisco.

O Gaiteiro, de Albrecht Dürer (1514). Fonte: The Met

The Musicians, de Lucas van Leyden (1524). Fonte: The Paupers and Peasants of the Renaissance

As cores das roupas das pessoas pobres tendiam a ser mais suaves do que são hoje, com o amarelo, o marrom e o azul sendo mais comuns do que a maioria. No entanto, essas não foram de forma alguma as únicas cores usadas. O artigo Cores para roupas elisabetanas de classe baixa tem mais sobre isso.


A foto abaixo do pintor flamengo Pieter Brueghel, o Jovem (1564 - 1638), mostra um músico mais bem vestido tocando a Dança do Ovo em uma aldeia camponesa. A dança do ovo era

um jogo tradicional de Páscoa que consiste em pôr ovos no chão e dançar entre eles, tentando quebrar o mínimo possível… o passatempo está associado às aldeias camponesas dos séculos XVI e XVII…

Cerca de. 1620. Fonte: Revisão de Domínio Público

Outra foto, esta do pintor holandês Jan Steen (c. 1626 - 1679), também apresenta a Dança do Ovo e mostra dois músicos (embaixo à direita).

Década de 1670. Fonte: Jan Steen - The Egg Dance, Peasants Merrymaking in an Inn WMR APH N070483.jpg "> esperas (bandas de músicos em vilas e cidades) eram assalariadas e frequentemente tinham roupas fornecidas (portanto, eles podem não se qualificar para a sua pergunta). outras responsabilidades, eles jogavam em festas e feiras da cidade. Mais informações e algumas fotos podem ser encontradas no site Waits. Também é importante notar que, pelo menos na Inglaterra elisabetana, os violinistas podiam ganhar bem tocando em festas e feiras da vila, mas suas fortunas podiam flutuar e não era incomum que músicos morressem como indigentes.


Outras fontes:

Música elisabetana

Música e danças tradicionais na época de Vermeer

Peter Brimacombe, Tudor Inglaterra

Música na era elisabetana

Penry Williams, The Later Tudors 1547-1603


Até a época de Beethoven, os músicos tinham um status social inferior. Eles eram basicamente servos. Como outros servos, eles estavam vestidos com librés finas enquanto serviam a seus senhores. Isso é o que você vê na maioria das suas fotos. Quando não estavam servindo, provavelmente se pareciam com a foto de Dürer. Ou assim:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Johann_Sebastian_Bach.jpg ">CompartilharMelhorar esta respostarespondidas 25 de outubro de 18 às 14:13fdbfdb8,6022 emblemas de ouro20 emblemas de prata38 emblemas de bronze

Moda dos anos 1940: estilos de roupas e tendências # 038

A moda dos anos 1940 era uma boa mistura de conforto e glamour. Havia roupas específicas para horários específicos do dia. Alguns de seus designs parecem totalmente modernos, mesmo para os padrões atuais.

Outra coisa que as mulheres SEMPRE usavam: luvas. De preferência um par que combine com a sua roupa. A pele era muito popular, assim como as peles de animais. Bolsas de crocodilo, coleiras de wombat, forro de pele de cordeiro e mangas de couro & # 8212 nenhum animal estava fora dos limites.

As roupas na década de 1940 eram muito brilhantes e coloridas. Quanto mais brilhante, melhor. Os sapatos femininos costumavam ser uma das três opções de cores populares: vermelho, branco ou azul.

O que as pessoas usavam na década de 1940? Dê uma olhada mais aprofundada na moda dos anos 1940, olhando as fotos e lendo nossa linha do tempo anual abaixo.

Compartilhe seu amor pela moda dos anos 1940: estilos de roupas e tendências # 038


Bandas de dança populares

A proibição do álcool começou em 1920, levando a um mercado underground de drinks muito disputados e à criação de locais como bares clandestinos. Os bares clandestinos começaram pequenos, mas quando os loucos anos 20 chegaram ao seu auge, os bares clandestinos se seguiram e se expandiram para clubes que apresentavam músicos e dançarinos. Bares clandestinos não eram os únicos lugares que ofereciam uma festa durante a Era do Jazz, havia clubes privados, clubes de dança, clubes de jazz e roadhouses. Todos eram lugares onde as pessoas podiam se reunir, ouvir novas músicas e experimentar as últimas novidades da dança juntas. A dança foi uma grande parte da cultura e da música popular durante esta década e houve uma série de danças icônicas que emergiram dessas cenas. Dançar representou o estilo de vida despreocupado e excessivo de lazer que muitos tiveram e tentaram imitar durante um dos primeiros grandes períodos de boom da história americana. Quase todas as cidades do país tinham algum tipo de banda de dança e um lugar para se reunir, fazendo da dance music uma das músicas mais ouvidas e aceitas da década de 1920. A dance music lançou a base para o que se tornaria o padrão pop clássico. O "Charleston", o "Black Bottom", o "Shimmy", o "Foxtrot" e o "Lindy Hop" foram algumas das danças mais populares da época. A maior parte da música de dança lembrava o que hoje chamaríamos de Big Band, mas na época era considerada Jazz e tinha elementos da antiga música Ragtime popular. A dança mais famosa e reconhecível dos anos 20 foi o Charleston. O Charleston foi apresentado ao mundo em 1923 no show da Broadway "Runnin 'Wild". Era uma música do show chamada "The Charleston" e foi feita em um estilo semelhante ao Ragtime. A música ragtime foi popular até o final dos anos 1910 e foi uma forte influência na música de dança do início dos anos 1920, enquanto o jazz influenciou fortemente a música de dança no final dos anos 1920. Várias foram as bandas e orquestras que tiveram sucesso com a dance music ao longo da década e muitas delas transitaram entre gêneros diferentes dependendo do que era mais popular na época. Alguns exemplos de bandas de dança populares foram Paul Whiteman e sua Orquestra, a Orquestra Fletcher Henderson, Ben Bernie e sua Orquestra e a Orquestra Nat Shilkret. Outro aspecto da dance music na década de 1920 eram as competições de dança e maratonas realizadas em todo o país. Estações de rádio, lojas e outras operações comerciais realizavam concursos para prêmios em que casais competiam para ver quem conseguia dançar por mais tempo, com algumas pessoas dançando por dias. Outras competições apresentariam dezenas de garotas vendo quem conseguia dançar o melhor Charleston por mais tempo. A popularidade da dance music também influenciou a moda da década, com roupas mais folgadas, como vestidos estilo "Flapper" para mulheres, e roupas esportivas mais casuais para homens, cada vez mais difundidas. Embora esses tipos de roupas não tenham sido necessariamente criados com a dança em mente, seu ajuste e estilos fáceis os tornaram ideais para a dança extravagante e ativa que dominou a década.

A música jazz começou no início de 1900 na comunidade negra de Nova Orleans. Era um novo tipo de música que combinava os estilos europeu e africano. É um estilo difícil de definir, pois incorpora vários elementos diferentes de vários estilos diferentes, depende de muita improvisação e ritmos sincopados e é subjetivo de várias maneiras. A música jazz atingiu o mainstream na década de 1920, quando músicos sul-africanos americanos começaram a se mudar para Chicago em busca de trabalho. Os anos 20 são freqüentemente chamados de Era do Jazz porque a popularização da música jazz teve um enorme efeito cultural. A música jazz era importante porque influenciava a moda, as danças, os padrões morais aceitos, a cultura jovem e as relações raciais. A música jazz foi um dos primeiros tipos de música a ser culturalmente apropriado pela classe média branca americana e os estudiosos do jazz costumam separar a música em "Jazz" e "White Jazz", marcando uma diferença de estilo e significado entre os artistas de jazz afro-americanos originais e artistas de jazz brancos popularizados. A música jazz era popular nas novas redes de rádio em expansão e foi uma das maneiras pelas quais os músicos brancos se apropriaram e popularizaram a música, já que muitas estações nacionais se recusavam a tocar discos de artistas negros na época. Dois artistas negros predominantes que tiveram popularidade e tocaram em bandas de jazz foram Louis Armstrong e Duke Ellington, um artista de jazz branco influente na época foi Bix Beiderbecke. O jazz ganhou popularidade e se espalhou pelo país em clubes, bares clandestinos e salões de dança onde bandas de jazz tocavam suas novas músicas. Muitos dos clubes eram segregados e só permitiam bandas brancas em clubes brancos e bandas negras em clubes negros. Algumas bandas afro-americanas populares tocando em clubes de brancos onde clientes negros não eram permitidos. Havia muito poucos clubes integrados ao redor e eles eram chamados de clubes "Black and Tan". O músico de jazz mais famoso da década e possivelmente de todos os tempos foi Louis Armstrong. Armstrong era um popular músico de jazz afro-americano que tocava trompete e corneta e era conhecido por sua voz distinta e grave. O talento de Armstrong o ajudou a quebrar algumas das barreiras raciais da época, já que ele tocou em várias bandas mistas e foi convidado para tocar em clubes apenas para brancos. Alguns dos sucessos notáveis ​​de Armstrong na década incluem "Heebie Jeebies" de 1926, "West End Blues" de 1928 e "Ain't Misbehavin '" de 1929. Outro músico de jazz influente da Era do Jazz foi Duke Ellington. Ellington era líder de uma banda de jazz e pianista. Ele foi uma figura influente na comunidade do jazz, mas também fez muito pela música popular e dance em geral. Ele também era uma figura popular que frequentava os brancos apenas em clubes de jazz para se apresentar. Algumas das canções populares de Duke Ellington da década de 1920 foram "Creole Love Call" e "Black and Tan Fantasy", ambas gravadas em 1927. Um terceiro músico de jazz influente da década foi um cornetista e pianista branco chamado Bix Beiderbecke. O estilo de Beiderbecke contrastou com Armstrong e acredita-se que ele teve uma influência igual na cena do jazz inicial como Armstrong. Muitas autoridades do jazz dizem que dois estilos distintos de jazz foram formados a partir da década de 1920, e os dois estilos podem ser rastreados até os estilos originais de Louis Armstrong ou Bix Beiderbecke. Armstrong era um músico altamente treinado e considerado um virtuoso, enquanto Beiderbecke era autodidata e, portanto, tinha um estilo incomum. O jazz foi o som e o estilo definidores da década de 1920 e continuou a ser uma forma de arte popular com uma paisagem musical em constante mudança. As gravações famosas de Beiderbecke incluem "Riverboat Shuffle" de 1924 e "Davenport Blues" de 1925.

Os Azuis

A primeira música popular de blues começou a aparecer no final dos anos 1900 e no início dos anos 1910. A música blues provavelmente se originou mais cedo do que nas comunidades afro-americanas nos estados do Deep Southern nos Estados Unidos. A música blues é caracterizada pela repetição de acordes e blues dos anos 1920 focados em uma estrutura de doze compassos. As canções costumavam narrar os problemas pessoais dos cantores e os problemas raciais diários associados ao fato de ser afro-americano no preconceituoso e segregado Sul do país. Algumas canções de blues também eram espirituosas e cômicas, uma visão satírica de uma vida melancólica. Durante os anos 20, o blues era quase exclusivamente tocado por músicos negros e só era popular na comunidade negra. Uma das cantoras de blues mais importantes da década foi Mamie Smith. Mamie Smith é responsável por fazer a primeira performance vocal de blues gravada por um cantor afro-americano em 1920. A canção se chamava "Crazy Blues" e era extremamente popular entre o público afro-americano, ajudando a criar um mercado para "discos de corrida". gravações que foram comercializadas especificamente para um público negro. Outra importante cantora de blues da década de 1920 foi a "Mãe do Blues", Ma Rainey. Ela também foi uma das primeiras artistas profissionais de gravação de blues e era conhecida por ter uma voz poderosa. Rainey era suspeito por muitos de ser bissexual ou lésbica e é considerada uma das primeiras vozes influentes na comunidade LGBTQ, já que muitas de suas canções faziam referência ao lesbianismo abertamente. Algumas canções famosas de Ma Rainey incluem "See See Rider", de 1924, "Black Bottom" de 1927 e "Prove It on Me", de 1928. Enquanto Ma Rainey era a "Mãe do Blues", outra artista, Bessie Smith, foi considerada a "Imperatriz do Blues" na década de 1920. Bessie Smith foi uma das artistas afro-americanas mais bem pagas da década e teve vários sucessos de blues durante os anos 20, incluindo "Downhearted Blues" e "T'ain't Nobody's Biz-Ness If I Do" de 1923 e "I Ain ' t Got Nobody "de 1926. Ela era conhecida por seus vocais incrivelmente fortes. Uma última figura importante no blues dos anos 1920 foi Blind Lemon Jefferson, um cantor e guitarrista que tinha um estilo distinto que o tornou um artista de enorme sucesso nos primeiros dias da indústria musical. Ele foi um dos primeiros artistas solo de voz e guitarra a ter sucesso na indústria fonográfica e foi considerado um inovador. As canções mais famosas do Blind Lemon Jefferson incluem "Matchbox Blues", "See That My Grave is Kept Clean" e "Black Snake Moan". O blues permaneceu popular desde 1920 e mudou e evoluiu com suas próprias tendências ao longo do tempo.

Broadway

A indústria cinematográfica foi estabelecida de alguma forma na década de 1920 e os filmes mudos eram os únicos tipos de filmes existentes a dominar a tela grande. Em 1923, o som sincronizado em filmes estava dando grandes passos no desenvolvimento da tecnologia e os primeiros curtas-metragens com som sincronizado estavam sendo criados. Em meados da década de 1920, os primeiros filmes falados de longa-metragem ("talkies") estavam sendo criados e comercializados. Com o advento dos filmes falados, o próximo passo natural seriam os musicais. Antes da criação dos filmes falados, os musicais geralmente se originavam na área teatral da Broadway, na cidade de Nova York. A Broadway se tornou um lugar onde artistas, compositores, escritores e músicos talentosos se reuniam para criar uma nova arte juntos. Ele se destacou durante a década de 1920 e foi um lugar onde a criatividade e a decadência floresceram. Compositores como George e Ira Gershwin, Cole Porter e Irving Berlin floresceram em sua criação de teatro musical. Muitas dessas obras de compositores foram então transformadas nos primeiros filmes musicais, onde encontraram novos públicos em todo o país. A música da Broadway encontrou um lar nos novos filmes de som sincronizado e a América foi apresentada a um teatro musical novo e moderno, uma mistura de estilos musicais clássicos e inovadores, justapostos com histórias emocionantes que refletiam a era atual. Alguns exemplos de espetáculos da Broadway transformados em filmes musicais durante a década de 1920 foram "Sally" (musical de palco de 1920 para filme de 1929), "Rio Rita" (musical de palco de 1927 para filme de 1929), "Show Boat" (musical de palco de 1927 para filme de 1929) , "Sunny" e "No, No, Nanette" (ambos musicais de palco de 1925 viraram filmes de 1930). Quando os filmes musicais não eram retirados diretamente dos musicais do palco, eles frequentemente usavam a Broadway como tema e pano de fundo, ocorrendo no mundo do palco. Alguns exemplos desses musicais incluem "The Jazz Singer" (1928), "The Broadway Melody" (1929), "Gold Diggers of Broadway" (1929) e "Broadway" (1929). A música da Broadway na década de 1920 foi fortemente influenciada pelo Jazz. Artistas populares da Broadway começaram a ingressar nas indústrias de cinema e gravação de música, onde suas performances marcantes podiam ser narradas e distribuídas para as massas por meio de filmes e discos. Estrelas famosas que emergiram da cena da Broadway incluem Fanny Brice, Al Jolson, Sophie Tucker e Ethel Waters. Muitos dos primeiros compositores da Broadway estavam enraizados na música clássica, mas o espírito da década implorou por inovação e encorajou compositores como George Gershwin a misturar o moderno com o antigo. A obra-prima de Gershwin, "Rapsódia em azul", introduzida em 1924, combinou perfeitamente o clássico com o novo jazz e surgiu como a música mais icônica e representativa dos anos 1920.

Canções populares da década de 1920

1920 - Dardanella - Ben Selvin, (-) Crazy Blues - Mamie Smith, (-) Whispering - Paul Whiteman, (-) Love Nest - John Steel, (-) Swanee - Al Jolson,

1921 - Margie - Eddie Cantor, (-) Procure o forro de prata - Marion Harris, (-) The Wabash Blues - Isham Jones, (-) All by Myself - Ted Lewis, (-) Wang Wang Blues - Paul Whiteman,

1922 - Chuva de abril - Al Jolson (-) Meu amigo - Henry Burr (-) Lábios quentes - Paul Whiteman (-) No Alamo - Isham Jones (-) Toot, Toot, Tootsie - Al Jolson (-)

1923 - Love Her by Radio - Billy Jones (-) Georgia Blues - Ethel Waters (-) Felix the Cat - Paul Whiteman (-) That Old Gang of Mine - Billy Murray (-) Dreamy Melody - Art Landry (-)

1924 - A canção do prisioneiro - Vernon Dalhart (-) Tinha que ser você - Isham Jones (-) King Porter Stomp - Jelly Roll Morton (-) Ciumento - Marion Harris (-) Rapsódia em azul - George Gershwin (-)

1925 - Dinah - Ethel Waters (-) St. Louis Blues - Bessie Smith (-) Sweet Georgia Brown - Ben Bernie (-) Lembre-se - Isham Jones (-) Sim senhor (-) That’s My Baby - Ace Brigode (-)

1926 - Tchau, Blackbird - Gene Austin (-) Alguns dias - Sophie Tucker (-) Rio Rita - Nat Shilkret (-) Sempre - Vincent Lopez (-) Heebie Jeebies - Louis Armstrong (-)

1927 - I’m Coming, Virginia - Bix Beiderbecke (-) Stardust - Hoagy Carmichael (-) Lucky Lindy - Nat Shilkret (-) Abanando o Blues - Ruth Etting (-) Fantasia preta e bronzeada - Duke Ellington (-)

1928 - Meu Homem - Fanny Brice (-) Quero Ser Amada por Você - Helen Kane (-) Makin 'Whoopee - Eddie Cantor (-) O Homem que Eu Amo - Marion Harris (-) Ol' Man River - Paul Robeson (- )

1929 -Quando Você Está Sorrindo - Louis Armstrong (-) Ponta dos pés através das tulipas - Nick Lucas (-) Talvez, quem sabe? - Kate Smith (-) Dream Lover - Jeanette MacDonald (-) Ain't Misbehavin ’- Fats Waller"


Dança e musica

As artes performativas também têm uma longa e distinta tradição. Bharata natyam, a forma de dança clássica originária do sul da Índia, expressa temas religiosos hindus que datam de pelo menos o século 4 dC (Vejo Natya-shastra) Outros estilos regionais incluem Odissi (de Orissa), manipuri (Manipur), Kathakali (Kerala), kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh), e kathak (Islamização do norte da Índia). Além disso, existem inúmeras tradições de danças folclóricas regionais. Uma delas é o bhangra, uma forma de dança punjabi que, junto com seu acompanhamento musical, vem conquistando popularidade nacional e internacional desde os anos 1970. A dança indiana foi popularizada no Ocidente pelo dançarino e coreógrafo Uday Shankar.

A música tradicional indiana é dividida entre as escolas Hindustani (norte) e Carnatic (sul). (O estilo Hindustani é influenciado pelas tradições musicais do mundo de língua persa.) A música instrumental e vocal também é bastante variada e freqüentemente é tocada ou cantada em concerto (geralmente por pequenos conjuntos). É uma forma popular de expressão religiosa, bem como um acompanhamento essencial para muitas festividades sociais, incluindo danças e narração de bárdicos e outras narrativas folclóricas. Alguns virtuosos, principalmente Ravi Shankar (compositor e tocador de cítara) e Ali Akbar Khan (compositor e tocador de sarod), ganharam renome mundial. As performances dramáticas clássicas mais populares, que às vezes são coreografadas, estão relacionadas aos grandes épicos hindus do Ramayana e a Mahabharata. Variações regionais de música clássica e folclórica são abundantes. Todos esses gêneros permaneceram populares - assim como a música devocional hindu - mas o interesse pela música popular indiana cresceu rapidamente desde o final do século 20, impulsionado pelo grande sucesso dos musicais de cinema. A música clássica ocidental é representada por instituições como a Orquestra Sinfônica da Índia, com sede em Mumbai, e alguns indivíduos (notadamente o maestro Zubin Mehta) alcançaram renome internacional.


Moda em 1932

Marlene Dietrich com boina inclinada

Com a crescente moda das sedas justas popularizadas em Hollywood, as roupas íntimas mudaram drasticamente em 1932. Embora ainda bordadas e geralmente inteiras, há uma notável ausência de costuras, já que aparecem através de roupas justas.

As mulheres recorrem aos espartilhos de uma forma impressionante e um novo interesse emerge no & # 8220uplift & # 8221 fornecido por dardos e costuras circulares ocultas. Sedas artificiais e zíperes tornam as roupas mais baratas, o que é muito importante em uma sociedade americana que tinha uma taxa de desemprego de 24%.

Um vestido de raiom xadrez azul e branco com cinto de faixa e gola em arco, com flores, fitas e penas no cabelo é o estilo do verão. Os chapéus da moda vão desde a casamata, toque, turbante aparado e boina basca (usada na lateral como Marlene Dietrich). O vestido de noite de algodão Chanel & # 8217s foi um grande sucesso em 1932.

Pela primeira vez, gravatas feitas de lã, não de seda, são a escolha fabulosa para o empresário elegante.


Mi & # 039kmaq

Mi’kmaq (Mi’kmaw, Micmac ou L’nu, "o povo" em Mi’kmaq) são povos indígenas que estão entre os habitantes originais das províncias atlânticas do Canadá. Nomes alternativos para os Mi’kmaq aparecem em algumas fontes históricas e incluem Gaspesians, Souriquois e Tarrantines. As comunidades Mi’kmaq contemporâneas estão localizadas predominantemente em Nova Scotia e New Brunswick, mas com uma presença significativa em Quebec, Newfoundland, Maine e na área de Boston. Em 2015, havia um pouco menos de 60.000 membros registrados das nações Mi’kmaq no Canadá.

Território Tradicional

Mi’kmaq está entre os habitantes originais da região atlântica do Canadá e habitou as áreas costeiras de Gaspé e as províncias marítimas a leste do rio Saint John. Este território tradicional é conhecido como Mi'gma'gi (Mi'kma'ki) e é composto por sete distritos: Unama'gi (Unama'kik), Esge'gewa'gi (Eskikewa'kik), Sugapune'gati ( Sipekni'katik), Epegwitg aq Pigtug (Epekwitk aq Piktuk), Gespugwi'tg (Kespukwitk), Signigtewa'gi (Siknikt) e Gespe'gewa'gi (Kespek). O povo Mi’kmaq ocupou seu território tradicional, Mi’gma’gi, desde tempos imemoriais. Mi’kmaq continua ocupando esta área, bem como assentamentos em Newfoundland e New England, especialmente Boston. A história oral e as evidências arqueológicas colocam Mi’kmaq em Mi’gma’gi por mais de 10.000 anos. (Veja também Território Indígena).

Vida Tradicional

Vista de uma cabana Mi'kmaq, um homem e uma criança, provavelmente Dartmouth, Nova Escócia, fotografada em 1860. Arquivos Antropológicos Nacionais, Smithsonian Institution, Foto NO. 47728. Grande casaco militar Mi'kmaq, vista traseira (cortesia do Glenbow Museum / Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, Austrália). Esta pintura de cerca de 1850 (óleo sobre tela, 45,7 x 61,0 cm) foi de um artista desconhecido que mostrou uma mistura de conhecimento e ingenuidade (cortesia NGC).

No mundo pré-contato de Mi’gma’gi, a história oral e arqueológica fala de habitações com padrões sazonais e coleta de recursos - primavera e verão passados ​​na costa, outono e inverno no interior. O povo de Mi’gma’gi dependia da variedade de recursos disponíveis, usando de tudo, desde crustáceos a mamíferos marinhos e mamíferos terrestres pequenos e grandes para nutrição, roupas, moradias e ferramentas. Eles também usaram a farta madeira da região para construir canoas, raquetes de neve e abrigos, geralmente em combinação com peles de animais e tendões. Os Mi’kmaq dependiam totalmente de seus arredores para sobreviver e, portanto, desenvolveram uma forte reverência pelo meio ambiente que os sustentava.

População

Em 2015, o número de pessoas registradas no Mi’kmaq First Nations era 58.763. Desse total, 23.997 eram membros da Qalipu First Nation of Newfoundland, uma comunidade sem terra oficialmente reconhecida pelo Governo do Canadá em 2011. Excluindo os sem-terra Qalipu, 56 por cento dos Mi'kmaq viviam em reservas em 2015. Mi'gma 'gi é o lar de 30 nações Mi'kmaq, 29 das quais estão localizadas no Canadá - o Aroostook Micmac Band of Presque Isle, Maine, tem mais de 1.200 membros. Todas as comunidades, exceto duas (a Primeira Nação Qalipu Mi’kmaq e La Nation Micmac de Gespeg em Fontenelle, Québec) possuem terras de reserva. Muitas pessoas Mi’kmaq vivem fora da reserva, seja em Mi’gma’gi ou em outro lugar. Mais ainda podem não ser incluídos nas contagens de população registrada, uma vez que não são reconhecidos como índios sob oAto indiano.

Organização Social e Política

Historicamente, os assentamentos Mi’kmaq foram caracterizados por famílias individuais ou conjuntas espalhadas ao redor de uma baía ou ao longo de um rio. As comunidades eram relacionadas por aliança e parentesco. A liderança, baseada no prestígio e não no poder, preocupava-se amplamente com o gerenciamento eficaz da economia pesqueira e caçadora.

Mi’kmaq compartilha laços estreitos com outros povos locais, incluindo Maliseet e Passamaquoddy. Com os povos Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot e Abenaki, os Mi’kmaq formam a Confederação Wabanaki, uma confederação de nações politicamente ativas pelo menos desde o contato com os europeus até o presente.

Um Chefe Mi'kmaq espera para ser apresentado a Suas Majestades durante a Royal Tour of Canada em 1939 em Halifax, NS (cortesia do Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia do Canadá / Coleção CN / CN003696).

O Grande Conselho Mi’kmaq (Sante ’Mawio’mi) é o governo tradicional dos povos Mi’kmaq, estabelecido antes da chegada dos europeus. O conselho sobrevive até hoje, embora seus poderes políticos tenham sido restringidos por legislação federal, como a Ato indiano. Nos anos 1600 e 1700, o conselho discutiu questões políticas e celebrou tratados com os britânicos. O Conselho também foi (e ainda é) considerado a autoridade espiritual do povo Mi’kmaq. Hoje, os membros do Grande Conselho Mi’kmaq defendem a promoção e preservação do povo, idioma e cultura Mi’kmaq.

Representantes de todo o território Mi’kmaq fazem parte do conselho. No passado, o Grande Chefe (Kji Sagamaw ou Kji Saqmaw) era o chefe de estado do corpo político coletivo Mi’kmaq, que consistia em capitães (Keepins ou kji'keptan), que liderou o conselho, leitores wampum (putu's ou putus), que manteve o tratado e as leis tradicionais, e soldados (smagn’is), que protegeu o povo. Hoje, o chefe, os capitães e os leitores wampum ainda dirigem o conselho, embora suas funções tenham sido reduzidas pelo governo federal para se concentrar principalmente na espiritualidade e cultura Mi’kmaq. Outras organizações, como a Mi’kmaq Rights Initiative (Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn), advogam politicamente pelo reconhecimento e implementação dos direitos do tratado. (Veja também Povos Indígenas: Tratados).

Cultura

Assento da cadeira de pena Mi'kmaq (cortesia do Glenbow Museum / Canadian Ethnology Service, CMC). Mocassins Mi'kmaq, por volta de 1830.

Como outros povos indígenas na região de Eastern Woodlands, Mi’kmaq praticava arte intrinsecamente ligada ao mundo natural. Artistas contemporâneos de Mi’kmaq, como Alan Syliboy, reinterpretaram as tradições artísticas de Mi’kmaq, como pinturas rupestres e roupas ornamentadas com penas. (Veja também Arte Indígena no Canadá).


A música é outro elemento importante da cultura Mi’kmaq. Muitas canções e cânticos tradicionais ainda são cantados durante rituais espirituais, festas, mawiomi (reuniões), cerimônias culturais e powwows. Em alguns casos, os cantos Mi’kmaq consistiam em vocábulos (sílabas faladas) como um meio de expressar emoção, em vez de palavras com significados.

Você sabia?
Em abril de 2019, um vídeo da adolescente de Cape Breton Mi’kmaq, Emma Stevens, cantando "Blackbird" em Mi’kmaq se tornou viral. A capa do clássico dos Beatles foi produzida pelo professor de Emma Carter Chiasson, traduzida pela professora Katani Julian e seu pai, Albert “Golydada” Julian, e gravada por Emma e seus colegas alunos da Allison Bernard Memorial High School em Eskasoni First Nation, Cape Breton . Eles traduziram a música para Mi'kmaq para alertar sobre as consequências do perigo das línguas indígenas durante o Ano Internacional das Línguas Indígenas da ONU, 2019. O vídeo decolou em todo o mundo, recebendo elogios de figuras públicas, incluindo o compositor original , Sir Paul McCartney, bem como um tweet do primeiro-ministro do Canadá, Justin Trudeau.


Língua

Mi’kmaq está entre o agrupamento Wabanaki de línguas Algonquianas Orientais, que incluem os vários dialetos Abenaki e as línguas Penobscot e Maliseet-Passamaquoddy. De acordo com o Censo de 2016, 8.870 pessoas estão listadas como falantes de Mi’kmaq. (Veja também Línguas indígenas no Canadá).

Mi’kmaq é escrito em ordem alfabética. Possui constantes de uma e duas letras, bem como cinco vogais que produzem sons longos e curtos. Mi’kmaq tem uma história de uso de pictogramas, mas esse sistema de escrita foi modificado por missionários que aprenderam a língua para ensinar o catolicismo nos anos 1600. Mi’kmaq had as many as 17 different dialects, including the unique Québec dialect Restigouche, but linguistic contact with French and English speakers has eroded the prevalence of the language and smoothed dialectical differences.

Despite challenges, language programs, including high school immersion programs, have helped to revitalize the language. In 1970, there were approximately 6,000 Mi’kmaq speakers, compared to the nearly 9,000 reported in 2016. However, these numbers may be misleading. While the National Household Survey asks speakers to self-report “an understanding” of a language, linguists measure health of a language by the number of fluent speakers. In 1999, a report by the Nova Scotia Mi’kmaw Language Centre of Excellence indicated fewer than 3,000 fluent speakers.

Nevertheless, Mi’kmaq is the only Indigenous language in significant active use in Mi’gma’gi (Maliseet had less than 800 speakers in 2011), and as such, is an important symbol of cultural strength and perseverance for the community.

Religion and Spirituality

Mi’kmaq spirituality is influenced by and closely connected to the natural world. The Mi’kmaq believe that living a good, balanced life means respecting and protecting the environment and living in harmony with the people and creatures that live on the earth. Analysis of the Mi’kmaq language enhances the fundamental importance of this worldview. Rather than a sequential, time-based verb tense structure (as in English), the Mi’kmaq language is experiential, relying on the evidence of the speaker to convey meaning.

Mi’kmaq culture and traditional religion is based on legendary figures like Glooscap (also written Kluscap) who is said to have formed the Annapolis Valley by sleeping on the land and using Prince Edward Island as his pillow. The Great Spirit is the creator of the world and all its inhabitants, a concept that was not destroyed when Catholic settlers and missionaries began to influence Mi’kmaq spirituality and religion in the 17th century. (Veja também Indigenous People: Religion and Spirituality).

Origin Stories

The Mi’kmaq, like most Indigenous groups, use stories to tell about the past and about their spirituality. Mi’kmaq oral tradition explains that the world was created in seven stages. The Creator made the sky, the sun, Mother Earth and then the first humans: Glooscap and his grandmother, nephew and mother. From sparks of fire that Glooscap commanded to come forth, came seven men and seven women — the founding families of the seven Mi’gma’gi districts. There are many other origin stories that describe how things came to be and how to live a good life.

cristandade

In 1610, Henri Membertou, a Mi’kmaq chief (sagamo ou sagamore), became the first Indigenous person to be baptized as a Catholic in New France, beginning a pattern of intense conversion and intermingling of customs. Mi’kmaq peoples, who had readily adapted to European trade goods, were likewise receptive to religious practices.

The Concordat of 1610 — a formal agreement between the Mi’kmaq and the Vatican marked by the creation of a treaty wampum — combined trade, treaty and religion in relations between the Mi’kmaq and the French. The Concordat made the Mi’kmaq Catholic subjects, and therefore legitimized trade and other relations between settlers and Indigenous peoples in Acadia or Mi’gma’gi. Mi’kmaq people continued to practise their own customs but incorporated the teachings of priests who had learned the Mi’kmaq language, entrenching Catholicism into Mi’kmaq spiritual identity.

Mi’kmaq religion remains firmly based in Catholicism. In the early 1990s, Mi’kmaq peoples from across Mi’gma’gi began celebrating Treaty Day (1 October) by incorporating traditional Mi’kmaq customs like drumming and the burning of sacred herbs into Catholic Mass. However, traditional Mi’kmaq spirituality is still practised today, with a concerted effort on the part of Mi’kmaq people to protect and promote their religious beliefs and customs.

Chapel of the Mi'kmaq on the Conne River, Newfoundland and Labrador (1908).

Colonial History

Due to their proximity to the Atlantic, the Mi’kmaq were among the first peoples in North America to interact with European explorers, fishermen and traders. As a result, they quickly suffered depopulation and socio-cultural disruption. Some historians estimate that European diseases (Ver Epidemic) resulted in a loss of up to half the Mi’kmaq population from about 1500 to 1600.

As a result of sporadic contact and trade with European fishermen, the Mi’kmaq who encountered the first sustained European settlements in what is now Canada were familiar with the people, their goods and their trade habits. Additionally, Mi’kmaq oral history tells of a Mi’kmaq woman’s ancient premonition that people would arrive in Mi’gma’gi on floating islands, and a legendary spirit who travelled across the ocean to find “blue-eyed people.” The foretelling of the arrival of Europeans meant Mi’kmaq were prepared when they first encountered fishermen off their shores.

Mi’kmaq participated in the fur trade by serving as intermediaries between Europeans and groups farther west, as fur-bearing animals quickly became scarce in the face of high demand. This fundamentally altered the lifestyle of the Mi’kmaq, who focused on trapping and trading furs rather than subsistence hunting and gathering.

Prolonged conflict between French and British colonial powers often pulled Mi’kmaq into the fray. The Mi’kmaq were largely allied with French colonial forces, which had established settlements across Acadia until the 18th century. During that time, and after conflicts with Britain, the Mi’kmaq signed treaties in 1726, 1749, 1752 and 1760–61, followed by two treaties to secure alliances during the American Revolution. These were known as the Peace and Friendship Treaties. The 1726 treaty was the foundation for the subsequent treaties. (Veja também Indigenous Peoples: Treaties).

These treaties between sovereign nations recognize the inherent Indigenous rights of the Mi’kmaq, and form the basis for modern treaty claims and renegotiations. The Royal Proclamation of 1763, though it established Indigenous rights in much of Canada, did not mention Maritime colonies. For this reason, most post-treaty European and Loyalist settlers ignored, or were ignorant of, Mi’kmaq rights.

In 1985, the Supreme Court of Canada confirmed that the Mi’kmaq and the Crown have a historic relation stemming from the treaties of the 1700s, and that the Mi’kmaq have Indigenous rights to the lands described in those treaties. Ever since 1 October 1986, Treaty Day in Nova Scotia and some other parts of Atlantic Canada has commemorated the signing and significance of the Peace and Friendship Treaties.


19th and 20th Century Struggles

Life under British, and later Canadian, governance was not kind to the Mi’kmaq, who were subjected to conscious attempts to alter their lifestyle. Most moves to establish them as agriculturalists failed because of badly conceived programs and encroachments upon reserve lands. Economic patterns that privileged employment as labourers effected irreversible change: crafts, coopering, the porpoise fishery, and road, rail and lumber work integrated the Mi’kmaq into the 19th- and 20th-century economy, but left them socially isolated.

As with many Indigenous peoples in Canada, the Mi’kmaq are strongly affected by the lasting trauma of residential schools. Adding to this cultural, generational and economic dislocation, in the 1940s, the Department of Indian Affairs forced more than 2,000 Mi’kmaq people living in numerous small communities to relocate to government-designated reserves. The moves, undertaken for the sole purpose of streamlining government administration were fraught with mismanagement and experimental tactics, and had disastrous effects on the communities. Homes, churches and industries were abandoned and replaced with poor conditions and economic dependency.

Você sabia?

Despite facing discrimination in Canada and a lack of civil rights (Mi’kmaq and other Indigenous peoples were not granted the right to vote until 1960), more than 200 Mi’kmaq warrior-soldiers ( sma’knisk) served with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in the First World War. Many were wounded or killed in battle (Vejo Indigenous Peoples and the First World War). In addition, Mi’kmaq soldier Corporal Samuel Glode (Gloade) was highly decorated for bravery on the Western Front. Glode was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) for disarming 450 land mines and bombs in 1918, saving many Canadian lives.

Contemporary Life and Activism

In 2015, there were 13 Mi’kmaq nations in Nova Scotia with a total registered population of 16,268. New Brunswick’s nine nations included 8,210 registered people, while the two nations in each of Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador had populations of 1,294 and 26,966, respectively. The three Québec nations had a total population of 6,025. Before 2011, the population of registered Mi’kmaq people in Newfoundland and Labrador was significantly lower in that year, the federal government recognized the status of more than 23,000 Mi’kmaq people, who formed the Qalipu Mi’kmaq First Nation.

The formation of the Qalipu is one example of continued activism among Mi’kmaq people. In 1999, the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed the rights of Donald Marshall, Jr., and thus all Mi’kmaq peoples, to a “moderate livelihood” through hunting and fishing rights. Marshall had been convicted in 1996 of fishing out of season, but the court ruled that the Peace and Friendship Treaties, signed in 1760 and 1761, guaranteed Mi’kmaq these rights.

The decision sparked what is known as the Burnt Church Crisis, where tensions reached a boiling point between Mi’kmaq and non-Indigenous fishermen, who argued that unchecked harvesting in the lobster fishery would lead to devastation of stocks. Despite the pacifist lobbying of organizations like the Bay of Fundy Inshore Fishermen’s Association among their own members, some non-Indigenous fishermen destroyed Mi’kmaq traps and other equipment. The situation threatened to devolve into violence. The federal government brought the crisis to somewhat of a close by buying licences and equipment from some non-Indigenous fishermen and entering into agreements with several Mi’kmaq communities to regulate a commercial fishery. Other Mi’kmaq communities did not reach agreements and continue to petition the federal government to recognize treaty rights.

Ongoing tensions over lobster fishing between non-Indigenous and Sipekne’katik (Mi’kmaq) fishers escalated in October 2020. A lobster pound was burned down in Middle West Pubnico the night of 17 October. The Mi’kmaq have called on the federal government, which is responsible for fisheries, to provide clear guidance on what a “moderate livelihood” involves.

In October 2013, members of the Elsipogtog First Nation in New Brunswick organized a demonstration against natural gas fracking being conducted on Crown land near their community. The protests centred on environmental arguments against fracking and the unceded nature of the territory in question. Protesters erected blockades on Highway 11 and several organizers were arrested. Non-violent protesters faced off against RCMP officers, producing iconic images and reigniting debate over the scope of Aboriginal title and the politics of environmental stewardship within an industrial economy.


Where can I find pictures of clothing of poor or common male European musicians between 1500 and 1700 - History

Women were seen as nothing more than mere objects. They were to be controlled in the age of enlightenment. Men took the role of the puppeteer and women took the role of the puppets. The role of women was determined around the time philosophers and scientists, all males, were controlling society. For a long time up until the 1960’s, women were seen as the “second sex”, and deemed second in importance, biologically. The preconceived theory is that women’s role is simply reproductive by nature. Nature’s “supposed” law of men above women changed in society by the time feminists evolved.

The idea that there is a hierarchy of genders based on the men and women’s natural differences, was very popular during the enlightenment. Women’s difference in body parts and personality traits were seen as negative and placed them below men in this way. They were kept behind the limelight, and in private salons. The women who decided that their education and intelligence overpowered the fact that they were women, still were oppressed. They also tried to participate in ‘under the radar’ debating societies. No matter how much they wanted to improve their lives through education and self-empowerment, men during this time always wanted to find a way to downgrade the women. Because the idea of women as objects was an idea as old as time, and that’s all men really knew about, it was hard for women to escape these traditional gender roles.

Feminism has now developed in such a way that women can use their experience and knowledge to join in on unions and political networks. Unlike in the 18 th century, when women were accustomed to hiding their sometimes brash opinions and thoughts, women can for the most part be respected enough to say and think what they feel. History has taught us that the way to respect isn’t through a quick fix, but instead a long and complex set of revolutions and evolution. The women of the 18 th century were an important stepping stone in allowing women to evolve to how they are today.

Changed since the Renaissance

Women were not able to start a revolution or movement during the time of the Renaissance. However, during the age of enlightenment, women started to demand to have the same educational opportunities as men and wanting to participate in higher societies. The legal status of women was left undetermined and men saw them as silly and subordinate.

A History of Women's Political Thought in Europe, 1400-1700 by Jacqueline Broad and Karen GreenPower, Piety and Patronage in Late Medieval Queenship: Maria de Luna by Nuria Silleras-FernandezEleanor of Aquitaine: Queen of France, Queen of England by Ralph V. Turner


Amsterdam

Prostitution comes from Latin and means: Placing in front (pro is upfront and otatuere means placement).


Prostitution in Amsterdam in the year 1905.

Is Prostitution The Oldest Profession in History?

Dr. Kate Lister – sex work historian: ‘It was actually the Victorian writer, Rudyard Kipling, who first coined the phrase ‘the world’s oldest profession’ in his short story, On the City Wall (1898). The tale opens with the immortal line “Lalun is a member of the most ancient profession in the world”. Since then, the expression has fallen into common parlance as a historical truth.


Amsterdam, Red Light District, 1968. A window prostitute. Photographer: Cor Jaring.

Mas, sex work is not the oldest profession in the world anthropologists have found no evidence of selling sex within numerous (so called) primitive societies. The northern hill tribes of Thailand had no word for prostitution, and Victorian explorers were surprised to discover that the Dyak people of Borneo had ‘no word to express that vice’, and when Christian missionary, Lorrin Andrews, translated the bible into Hawaiian in 1865, he had to invent new words to teach the islanders about the concept of sexual shame, and infidelity. But, wherever you find money, you also find sex work.’

10 Synonyms For Prostitute

✦ Hooker
✦ Nightwalker
✦ Courtesan
✦ Femme fatale
✦ Painted lady
✦ Jilt
✦ Whore
✦ Harlot
✦ Escort
✦ Sex worker

What is a whore?


Amsterdam, Red Light District, 1968. A window worker receives a customer. Photographer: Cor Jaring.

‘Whore‘ is an old Indo-European word, related to the Old Indian word Kama (like in Kamasutra) meaning lust. Historically, levied at any women who stepped outside the norms of modest behaviour that upset the status quo. Whore originally derives from the Germanic ‘horon’ meaning “one that desires’. (Source: Dr. Kate Lister – sex work historian)

In old Norwegian the word is ‘hora’ (adulteress woman). In Dutch it’s called: “hoer” and is almost pronounced the same way as the English word ‘whore’.

Harlotry (in Dutch “hoererij”) was the general term for both paid and unpaid sex outside of marriage. The honour of a women was set by her sexual behaviour. Whores were considered to be honourless women. The word prostitute only became generally accepted in the Netherlands in the 19 th century.


The Brunswick Monogrammist, brothel in 1550. In the back a woman and a man “go upstairs”.

The Whore of Babylon

Being a whore is one of the oldest professions on earth. The Holy Bible mentions a woman, called the Whore of Babylon. That stood for sinful behaviour. It meant that the Roman Empire –according to the writers of the Bible- was no more than a bunch of unholy people, with their multitude of Gods and their wrongful morals.

Lucas van Leyden Sodom destroyed by God, 1509.

The Bible says Sodom and Gomorra were destroyed by God, because of the sinful behaviour of their citizens. Sodomy [love between men], whores, brothels and drunkenness formed the basis of the decay in these two Biblical places. Having sex was only destined for married couples.


Lilith according to painter John Collier (oil on canvas, 1892).

The History Of Prostitution 3000 years before Christ

But even before the Bible, a woman called Lilith was mentioned in clay tablets. The demon Lilith, emerged for the first time circa 3000 BC in the ancient city of Uruk, in what is now called Iraq. She was a high priestess of the Inanna-temple and was sent by the Goddess “to get men from the streets.”

Lilith was one of the Nu-giggs, the pure or spotless, who were worshipped as holy women. The rituals Lilith took part in were later considered prostitution-rituals.

First legalisation of prostitution

Solon – the great Athenian legislator – was the first to legalise prostitution. He legalised prostitution in the year 594 before Christ, Solon implemented state measures. Firstly to protect marriage and to prevent adultery. Secondly to unlimited satisfaction of all extramarital sexual desire.

How did people react to prostitution?

A prostitute is always a source of many different reactions. Jealousy is certainly one. And many a spouse was relieved to see her man go to the Red Light District, as she refused to have sex with him. That also was the reason for the Catholic Church to condone prostitution. 70% of all clients of prostitutes are married, recent studies show.

Prostitutes always made good money and so did those around them, like a pimp, the inn, etc., as is apparent from all the inns in paintings, where leisure, beer, kissing and making- out is depicted in a straight forward way. Victorian times hadn’t arrived yet and there was little or no structure to every day life.
In present days, Lilith lives as much as back then. More and more women free their untameable Lilith energy- their free, dark, sexual, tempting and creative powers.


Jan Steen, Wine is mocker, 1669. Woman having too much to drink in front of an inn.

City administrations have more than once tried to regulate prostitution, this gave the police an opportunity to close one eye and receive payments for doing so. Only the women who did serious crimes, besides prostitution, such as manslaughter, murder or repeated battering, were punished.

Learn more about the history of prostitution, Dutch culture and the Netherlands. Join our informative tours in Amsterdam with licensed guides.

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Punishments

City Justice made use of City Regulations – such as one from the year 1413 in Amsterdam – which held that a prostitue, performing her trade outside the allowed place and after having received two warnings, would be buried alive. [Source: Book Of Regulations A folium 4, 1413]. Indeed, several women have actually been buried this way, as becomes apparent from old books of Justice of the city. It’s The Dark Ages, you know? The poor women.

A woman could also lose her ear if she slept with anyone else but her spouse, or with a man in the church or at the cemetery!
This actually happened to a woman known as Neeltje Pieters, who returned despite her legally being banned from Amsterdam and did wrong things on her arrival back home. As a punishment, she lost her ear at 12 November 1650 [Source: Justice book of the year 1650, folio 21].

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Brothels, stoves and inns

Year 1377 – 1477

In Burgundian times which ran from the year 1377 to the year 1477, Burgundian Duke Philip of Burgundy re-introduced an old Roman tradition in his countries which included The Netherlands back then: Stoves or Bath houses. They were called stoves because they were heated. A stove was basically an Inn. The present day German word Stube [bar] still refers to that heating aspect of such an Inn.

But Anthony of Burgundy went a step further introducing the Stove as a brothel and an Inn combined. And the upper class liked the Stove, too. Anthony was the son of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy, who was known for his adultery and fornication.



UMA bath house-brothel in 1470 with the King on the background.

This aquarel depicts a man in courtly garb and a king looking through a window in the year 1470, observing debauchery in the baths. Nude men and women bathe and eat together, while two couples in the baths and a couple in an adjacent room kiss and fondle. The prostitutes wear elaborate veils and jeweled necklaces. The painter, the Master of Anthony of Burgundy chose to place the scene of luxury in a contemporary Flemish bath house or brothel.

Brothels with adjacent bath houses and public bath houses that also offered illicit prostitution were common in the late Middle Ages in France, the Low Countries, and Germany. Although prostitution was illegal in public bath houses, proprietors often overlooked the law. Bath house-brothels earned a reputation for vice and licentiousness. Gambling, theft, and drunkenness all appear as complaints in legal documents.


A whore painted by the Dutch female master painter Judith Leyster. Circa 1650.

The owner of a Stove could be fined 3 Pounds, the City regulation stipulated. Young Gentry men had an initiation ritual: they took a freshman student to a Stove, where it was common for this young man, aged 16 or 17, to receive a gift: life-long Syphilis.

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Prostitutes and STD’s

Year 1478 – 1564

At a certain point the connection was discovered between prostitutes and venereal diseases (STD’s) and the City made policies to prevent or diminish it.
Already in a City Regulation of the year 1478 “Rendez-Vous Houses” or “Meeting Houses” were mentioned. Places where women drank with men, “to be merry and to do other things as they liked”, as a source describes it.

On September 18th, 1564 a woman by the name of Mary Simonsdochter (Mary Simons daughter) was put in the “kaak” (see picture below) as a public punishment and humiliation and she was afterword’s brought by the police to a brothel in the Pieter Jacob Alley, all because Mary was a prostitute and “was seen engaged with a certain married man person.” And “notwithstanding her having received several warnings on the part of the government of the City of Amsterdam.”


Being posted on the “Kaak”. A forgotten form of punishment.

Displayed here is an advert for Van Rossums tobacco, with a punished man at the “Kaak”. Mostly the perpetrator was attached to this torture instrument for 3 hours, not longer. Passersby were allowed to throw rotten eggs or tomatoes at the villain, but in this picture a friendly inhabitant makes the crook enjoy his pipe!

At the end of the 16th century brothels were abolished in Amsterdam. Nevertheless prostitution increased.

A new form of brothel in Amsterdam: The Play House

Year 1668 – 1809

In 1668 the City of Amsterdam decided to install street lighting. By 1670 there were already 1800 lampposts in the city that ran on oil lighting. The purpose of the new lighting was the increase the safety in the city. An unexpected side effect was that it led to a boom in nightlife and with it prostitution. The Growth of so called playhouses coincided with the introduction of street lanterns.

In 1681 a booklet was published called: Le Putanisme d’Amsterdam, that described the Playhouse or Music House, that had arrived as a new form of brothel. “The building shows no windows whatsoever and is only indicated by the lantern at the outside. A hall leads to a large room, where a man plays the spinet [old piano giving a tinkling sound] and where a lot of people are together. High on the ceiling of this room hangs an enormous copper chandelier, like one sees in churches. Also a man plays a violin. Young women wait until they are invited by a man to have a drink and sit together. They are wonderfully dressed and their hair is beautifully done. A chansonnier sings all kinds of songs and the women perform solo dances, of which the Kurat is the most popular.

Book cover of “ Le Putanisme d’Amsterdam”.


Amsterdam, Warmoesstraat, 1808. Playhouse De Pijl.

This etching from 1808 shows the chic interior of Playhouse De Pijl at Pijlsteeg 27, where nowadays Hotel Krasnapolsky is located. Playhouse was the name for a luxurious brothel. Four girls dance in the middle of the room. Other girls talk and drink with the customers. In the background, a servant lets in new visitors. They must first report to the boss, who is behind a high desk on the left. In these types of play houses, an orchestra provided the music and the visitors drank and gambled a lot.

Since the eighteenth century, Amsterdam’s city council tolerated these type of luxury brothels. Over the centuries, the administrators had tried to curb prostitution. But the city council had never completely exterminated it. Prostitution was seen as a phenomenon that belonged to a large port city, like Amsterdam.

Many honorable Christian Amsterdammers did experience thorns. For example, on Monday 7 November 1887, the Association for the Fight against Prostitution met in a room on Warmoesstraat. The members were excited about the prostitution that was rampant in Amsterdam. Partly thanks to this movement, the national ban on brothels was introduced in 1911.

The Spin House


Amsterdam, Red Light District, 19th-century.

Regularly prostitutes were brought to the so called Spin House – a penitentiary for women. The convicted women (criminals, beggars and prostitutes) were punished, sat in a large room and also had to spin and sew. Everybody who paid a nickel could watch them as if it was the zoo. The women were forced to nit and sew and were detained for a certain time.


Spin house (women’s prison) around 1700. A prison for female thieves, hookers, etc.



The Spin house in Amsterdam, 1650. Painted by Bartholomeus van der Helst.

This painting depicts several “regents” – the directors of the Dutch cities in the 17th century and the 18th century. The power was then in the hands of the regent families, who often gave family members powerful jobs. The Spin House had four male regents and two female regents. On the background of the painting you can get a glimpse of the daily affairs of this Spin house. One of the women gets beaten with a shoe. Apparently physical punishment was seen as an integral part of reeducation of the women.



Amsterdam, 17th-century. UMA woman gets beaten with a shoe as punishment.

Already in the 17th century women were brought to Amsterdam, a booming town, from elsewhere, mainly Flemish Brabant, the region just above Brussels. So there was women trafficking, but many women in Amsterdam did their trade voluntarily and came from the city itself. A lot of money was easily made this way.

Around 1700 the city government started to seriously clamp down on the organizers behind prostitution. So called “madams” (female pimps/ brothel owners) were sentenced to life in prison or exile. In 1706 a madam was for the first time put on the earlier mentioned “kaak” for all to see.

From 1722 they also started with flogging in public. Fines were also increased and the expensive clothing of the prostitutes, often owned by the madams, were confiscated. Around 1720 prostitution went underground, a number of large playhouses disappeared and the small whorehouses, where a madam and one or two prostitutes lived, made far less explicit promotion. The women no longer flaunted themselves in Front of the door of whorehouses. Instead they went to the “kruisbaan” (nickname for the street) to find customers. People used to call prostitutes walking the streets “kruisen”. The American word cruising appears to have originated from “kruisen”.

In an alley called Hasselaarsteeg [Hasselaar Alley], located at 100 yards from the harbor, brothels were left to their own devices, because sailors had to sleep somewhere and many of time they did that just there, in the houses of public women. The City of Amsterdam only withdrew the license of a public woman after a multitude of complaints about her, as is stated in a Police report from 1838 about a woman in the Handboogstraat.

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Legalisation and Repression

Year 1809 – 1882

With the French occupation of The Netherlands in 1809 the ban on prostitution was lifted. Starting from 1809 prostitution was allowed, under the condition that the women and brothel owners registered with the police. The reason for this practice originates from the Napoleonic wars. Soldiers and prostitutes often spent time together. During the Napoleonic wars there was a big increase in venereal disease, with negative consequences for the fighting strength of the army. It was hoped that the registration and checkups, including medical checkups, would decrease the number of venereal cases. The French government in The Netherlands ended the ban on prostitution and with the implementation of code penal in 1811 only prostitution with minors was made illegal. This meant the separation between the law and morals. Even more special is the Law-on-the-Cities of 1851, that recognised both brothels and prostitutes as legal! True!

After the French left in 1813 prostitution remained legal. In many cities, especially garrisoned ones, prostitution was regulated. Amsterdam was an exception. Even though prostitution was viewed as condemnable the local authorities would not interfere with the sector. Still the city of Amsterdam provided medical checkups for prostitutes.

Number of Brothels

In 1882 there were 68 legalised houses of prostitution, with 170 public women. In brothels signs were posted with this warning in three languages:
“In Holland, no prostitute can be kept in a house of tolerance, be it for debts, be or for whichever motive. People having doubts, can address these doubts to Police stations [follows the address].”

In 1854 the City of Amsterdam forbade “acquiring the attention by one or more women in a brothel of any one passing by, pouring liquor, beer or wine to a Policeman in uniform, all of which, together or with or without receipt of complaints about irregularities “ could lead to shutting down the brothel in its entirety. In England movements for abolition of the trade started in 1870, followed up in Amsterdam by The Midsummer night Association in 1888. The debate about prostitution reignited. Hundreds of books and pamphlets were written by proponents – fighting with statistics – defending public health and opponents, who considered the checkups of prostitutes a license for visiting brothels. The proponents for ending prostitution called themselves abolitionists. They chose this name because of its meaning in the fight against abolishing slavery globally. They started protesting right in front of a brothel, only to give rise to mockery [first], insults [after] and outright fights and up risings [in the end], meaning that this attempt to deal with the oldest profession on earth was doomed to fail.


“Reines des trottoirs” (Queens of the sidewalk), Amsterdam, late 19th century.

After so many centuries of condoning brothels, criticism against condoned prostitution eventually led to the “zedelijkheidwet” (morality law) of 1911. It became expressis verbis and officially forbidden by Amsterdam City law, to accommodate acts of indecency in one’s house or trade.



Police sally forth in May 1902 to close down brothel “The Green palace” in the Wijde Lombard steeg.
Cartoon in the Amsterdamsche Courant.

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Brothels went provocative

Violation of this new City-rule was punished with shut down by the Fornication Police, who went to the place in full pomp and circumstance!
Brothels advertising openly on the streets and in newspapers in a provocative way, didn’t do much good to the business of prostitution: Authorities reacted by making things more difficult. New laws were introduced, repression became firmer.

Provocative Advertisement of brothel Maison Weinthal circa 1900.

Brothel Maison Weinthal was shut down by the Amsterdam authorities on June 20th, 1902.

Now local brothel-keepers went into appeal with the courts, putting forward that the local City-laws were in contradiction to National laws. Eventually the Supreme Court in the Netherlands held that the Amsterdam City law did not contravene any higher body of law and the appeals were thereby dismissed.

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Health issues

In 1904, the Liquor Law went into force. This was to target females in bars trying to get the male visitors to drink beer, wine and jenever (the dutch version of gin). These women are called animation girls, since they try to animate you to drink and to pay the bill for both of you. They were prositutes too. It was forbidden to have female staff in a bar without a specific license from the City, mentioning the women and her address in question on paper.

As a result of the Sanitary Convention of 1916 drafted in Brussels, to which all civilised nations adhered, sailors of all nationalities can have free treatment of genital diseases. The invention by Alexander Fleming of a new drug: Penicillin, made treatment of venereal diseases possible. Quite a relief!


Amsterdam, Antoniesbreestraat, 1919 – The bowed bed of a prostitute.

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Statistics

In 1926, Amsterdam had 1900 working prostitutes in town. They worked on the streets, in houses or in cafes. Back then, 855 prostitutes (45%) worked on the streets. 627 prostitutes (33%) worked in houses and stood behind the window or in the doorway. 209 hookers (11%) worked in cafes or so called cabarets.

The trade of prostitution can be divided in certain categories:

  • Street prostitutes
  • House prostitutes
  • Bar-prostitutes
  • Occasional prostitutes
  • Brothel prostitutes and massage prostitutes
  • Call-girls

History of Prostitution in Amsterdam: Politicians and Prostitutes


Amsterdam, Red Light District, Oudekerksplein 34. Photographer: C. Jaring.

Rob Oudkerk, a former Dutch politician and alderman of Amsterdam in the nineties, was dismissed when, in a loose mood at a bar, he told female journalist Heleen van Royen that he frequented prostitutes at an Amsterdam industrial site. Rob Oudkerk, at the moment of publication in the year 2004, was an MP and was forced to resign and disappear from the national political theatre. Nowadays, prostitution is accepted, except by conservative and religious political parties, like CDA or CU.

Project 1012

In 2007, the City of Amsterdam adopted a policy called 1012 – the zip code of the Red Light District. It encompasses among other things, buying real estate [from wrongdoers] and installing regular shops in the real estate. Like a game cafe, fashion shops, chocolate shops, art galleries and so on. That policy has been successful. But because of this policy, the number of brothel windows is decreasing. This means less working space for the prostitutes. On April 9th, there was this big protest in Amsterdam, where sex workers protested against the closing of the brothels. “Don’t save us, save our windows”, sex workers said. In the 70’s and 80’s, the Red Light District was all about sex & drugs. At present the Amsterdam Red Light District is a fine place to be and to hang out. There is so much to see! Nowadays, it offers more than just window brothels and cannabis coffee shops.

Hidden Church in Amsterdam Red Light District


Amsterdam’s hidden church Our Lord In The Attic.

Don’t forget to check Our Lord In The Attic (in Dutch: Onse Lieve Heer Op Solder), a wonderful 17th century house, where Catholics secretly held their worshipping ceremonies in a time Calvinism became the main religion in Holland (as from 1585). This 5 story house has a complete church on the highest floor, which is exactly the same now as in those days! The rest of the house shows how people lived in the 17th century without central heating and warm water.

Você sabia disso Catholics who paid the church were only allowed to sit on one of the benches? The poor (those who didn’t have money to pay the church) were welcome too, but they had to stand in the back.


Renaissance Costume

Renaissance costume wear is different, strictly speaking, from Renaissance clothing. For the most part, these are just-for-fun items that can be purchased in costume stores. Also, many medieval costumes can be observed at a typical renaissance fair. Renaissance fair costumes and medieval costumes are mass produced, often from modern synthetic materials. You’ve undoubtedly seen such costumes every year at Halloween, in retail giants like Walmart and Kmart. If you want to buy a cheap renaissance costume, check discount stores in October. For even cheaper renaissance and medieval costumes, wait until after Halloween, when the costumes are marked down.

If you want something more authentic to wear to a renaissance fair, check with the festival staff or website before you purchase a costume. Oftentimes, you can rent a suitable costume at the fair, near the main entry gate. Also, the fair you’re attending might offer quality Renaissance costumes and medieval costumes for sale.


1900-1910: Transition to the 1910s

With Poiret’s liberating of women’s corsets he took the first step to a straight silhouette and a fashion that made life easier for women. Poiret, amongst others, in combination with WWI, created a functional fashion with shorter skirts, simple lines and clothes that are similar to today. As in midi skirt, sweaters and cardigans! The 1900s were the last steps of old society and the first steps of the new life that awaited people. Out with the old and in with the new!

Next week I’ll talk about WWI, ransons and the years leading up to the flapper girls: 1910 – 1920! Hope you’ll like this series folks! Xx


Assista o vídeo: Onde comprar roupas de época no Brasil?