14 de agosto de 1942

14 de agosto de 1942


O Exército Russo repele as Forças de Hitler: agosto de 1942 a janeiro de 1943

Em 4 de outubro de 1942, Hermann Göring chamou a Segunda Guerra Mundial & quotthe a Guerra das Raças. & Quot Saiba mais sobre este e outros eventos importantes da Segunda Guerra Mundial que ocorreram durante o mês de outubro de 1942 abaixo.

Cronograma da Segunda Guerra Mundial: 3 de outubro a 14 de outubro

3 de outubro: Wernher von Braun, o cientista de foguetes nazista que finalmente irá para os EUA após a guerra e se tornará uma das maiores mentes da NASA, vê a Alemanha nazista lançar com sucesso uma de suas primeiras criações, o míssil balístico A4.

4 de outubro: Enfatizando a obsessão nazista com o genocídio judeu que acabará por contribuir para a queda do Reich, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring afirma que a guerra & quotnão a Segunda Guerra Mundial, [mas]. . . a Guerra das Raças. & quot

5 de outubro: O líder nacionalista chinês Chiang Kai-shek pede a retirada de todas as forças soviéticas da província de Sinkiang.

7 de outubro: Em um conceito que se desenvolverá nos Julgamentos de Nuremberg, Franklin Roosevelt diz que os perpetradores de assassinatos em massa e outras atrocidades de guerra serão julgados no final da guerra.

10 de outubro: Citando o & quot esplêndido que mostra os italianos na América & quot fizeram durante a guerra, o procurador-geral dos EUA, Francis Biddle, suspende o status de & quotinterno inimigo & quot de cerca de 600.000 cidadãos italianos residentes.

11 a 12 de outubro: Os Aliados têm uma linha de abastecimento aberta para Guadalcanal após a derrota do Japão na Batalha de Cabo Esperance.

12 de outubro: O novo Coastal Command Liberator de longo alcance da RAF afunda seu primeiro U-boat no Atlântico Norte.

14 de outubro: O Campo de Henderson de Guadalcanal é seriamente danificado em um bombardeio pelos navios de guerra japoneses Kongo e Haruna.

O Exército Vermelho consegue enfrentar mais um intenso ataque alemão nazista de cinco divisões em Stalingrado.

Manchetes da Segunda Guerra Mundial

Abaixo estão mais destaques e imagens que descrevem os detalhes da Segunda Guerra Mundial, incluindo informações sobre porta-aviões dos EUA e trabalho escravo ucraniano.

Trabalhadores escravos ucranianos morreram de fome e maltratados: Encantado com a conquista nazista da Ucrânia em 1941, Hermann Göring considerou assassinar todos os homens da região com mais de 15 anos para dar espaço para a "raça dos mestres". Mas a escassez de mão-de-obra nazista alemã logo persuadiu Göring a trabalhar ucranianos até a morte como escravos . No decorrer de 1942, um pequeno número de ucranianos foi atraído para trabalhar na "bela Alemanha". Muitos outros foram trazidos por deportações forçadas. Considerados subumanos de acordo com a ideologia nazista, os trabalhadores ucranianos morreram de fome e foram maltratados. Acredita-se que bem mais de 10 milhões de ucranianos foram mortos de 1939 a 1945, muitos em bombardeios aliados.

Pierre Laval da França se alinha com a Alemanha: "Se os alemães forem derrotados, o general de Gaulle retornará", previu Pierre Laval, primeiro-ministro do governo de Vichy, em setembro de 1942. "Ele será apoiado por. . . o povo francês e eu serei enforcado. ”Depois que os alemães nazistas invadiram a França em 1940, Laval foi nomeado vice-primeiro-ministro do governo de Philippe Pétain em Vichy. Laval, convencido de que a Alemanha nazista venceria a guerra, pressionou por uma aliança militar nazista franco-alemã. Suspeitando de seu subordinado, Pétain fez com que Laval fosse demitido, mas Laval voltou ainda mais forte com o apoio da Alemanha nazista e foi nomeado primeiro-ministro. Quando o governo de Vichy caiu em 1945, Laval foi baleado por um pelotão de fuzilamento - não enforcado.

Submarino japonês afunda o USS Vespa: Encomendado em 1940, o USS Vespa era um modelo menor do maior Yorktown transportadoras de classe. Antes da guerra, ele se engajou na patrulha do Atlântico e transportou aviões da RAF para Malta. Enviado ao Pacífico em junho de 1942, o Vespa participou dos desembarques em Guadalcanal e mais tarde forneceu cobertura para comboios de reabastecimento para as Ilhas Salomão. Foi afundado pelo submarino japonês I-19 a sudeste da Ilha de San Cristobal enquanto escoltava transportes de tropas para Guadalcanal.

Descubra mais sobre outros eventos importantes da Segunda Guerra Mundial que ocorreram durante outubro de 1942 na próxima seção.

Saiba mais sobre os eventos e jogadores significativos da Segunda Guerra Mundial nestes artigos informativos:

Os Estados Unidos entraram na Segunda Guerra Mundial em 1941 com sete porta-aviões. No final da guerra, esses números quadruplicaram - o porta-aviões substituiu o encouraçado como o navio de superfície mais proeminente da Marinha.

O poder aéreo desempenhou um papel fundamental na campanha naval contra o Japão, e o porta-aviões forneceu os meios para distribuir esse poder pelas vastas distâncias do Pacífico. Para tanto, os porta-aviões norte-americanos foram construídos sem blindagem pesada ou armas grandes, de modo que pudessem transportar mais aviões e combustível e maximizar sua velocidade e mobilidade.

O porta-aviões da Classe Essex, lançado em 1943, era um navio de 27.000 toneladas e 32 nós, capaz de operar de 90 a 100 aeronaves. O complemento geralmente incluía uma mistura de caças, torpedeiros e bombardeiros de mergulho. A proporção de combatentes aumentou de cerca de 25% do total para 75% no final da guerra.

Embora carregados com armas antiaéreas, os porta-aviões também contavam com navios de escolta - contratorpedeiros, navios de guerra e cruzadores - para proteção contra ataques inimigos aéreos e de superfície. A defesa foi aprimorada pela própria proteção dos caças dos porta-aviões - conhecida como Patrulha Aérea de Combate - que permaneceu no alto para lidar com os ataques aéreos inimigos.

Os oficiais da Marinha finalmente perceberam que três ou quatro porta-aviões organizados em grupos com encouraçados, cruzadores e contratorpedeiros de apoio ofereciam a melhor combinação de golpe ofensivo e poder de fogo defensivo. Esses grupos de tarefas poderiam operar de forma independente ou em combinação como uma força-tarefa de transportadora rápida, o que proporcionava uma flexibilidade considerável. Os centros de informação de radar e combate permitiam que vários navios e aeronaves coordenassem o ataque e a defesa.

Esses grupos de tarefas se beneficiaram de um sistema de abastecimento logístico que possibilitou operações aéreas ofensivas 24 horas por dia contra alvos terrestres. Isso colocou os japoneses, que eram capazes apenas de ataques rápidos, em clara desvantagem.

Apesar da proeminência do porta-aviões, apenas cinco batalhas de porta-aviões foram travadas durante toda a guerra. A maioria das operações das transportadoras foi conduzida contra bases de navios e ilhas e em apoio a desembarques anfíbios.

Combinando velocidade, mobilidade e poder terrível, as Forças-Tarefa Fast Carrier tornaram possível a campanha de salto de ilhas da guerra do Pacífico.


Conteúdo

Edição Dunquerque para Dieppe

No rescaldo da evacuação de Dunquerque da Força Expedicionária Britânica em maio de 1940, os britânicos começaram o desenvolvimento de uma força de ataque substancial sob a égide do Quartel-General de Operações Combinadas. Isso foi acompanhado pelo desenvolvimento de técnicas e equipamentos para a guerra anfíbia. No final de 1941, um esquema foi proposto para o desembarque de 12 divisões em torno de Le Havre, assumindo uma retirada das tropas alemãs para conter o sucesso soviético no leste. Daí surgiu a Operação Rutter para testar a viabilidade de captura de um porto por um pouso oposto, a investigação dos problemas de operação da frota de invasão e testar equipamentos e técnicas de assalto. [7]

Após sua vitória na Batalha da Grã-Bretanha em 1940 e a Luftwaffe tendo mudado para o bombardeio noturno no outono de 1940, os caças diurnos do Royal Air Force Fighter Command eram "uma força sem missão imediata". [8] Sem nada mais para fazer, os caças do RAF Fighter Command estavam na primavera de 1941 implantados em uma série de missões de busca e destruição voando sobre a França para enfrentar o Luftwaffe em combate. Na segunda metade de 1941, a ofensiva aérea sobre a França foi fortemente intensificada, levando à perda de 411 aeronaves britânicas e canadenses. [8] Na primavera de 1942, o Luftwaffe implantou o novo caça Focke-Wulf Fw 190 em seus campos de aviação na França. [9]

O Fw 190 foi muito superior ao Supermarine Spitfire Mk V e Hawker Hurricane Mk II usados ​​pelos pilotos britânicos e canadenses e as perdas na França aumentaram. [9] A RAF estava convencida de que estava ganhando a guerra aérea, acreditando que a perda de 259 Spitfires sobre a França nos primeiros seis meses de 1942 foi justificada pela destruição relatada de 197 aeronaves alemãs no mesmo período. Um grande problema para a RAF era que o Luftwaffe Os pilotos de caça alemães se recusaram a entrar em combate na costa francesa e, em vez disso, operaram no interior, forçando os Spitfires britânicos a voar mais fundo na França, gastando seu combustível, colocando-os em desvantagem quando o Luftwaffe acionado. Graças à inteligência fornecida pelo Ultra, os britânicos sabiam que se qualquer força aliada tentasse tomar um porto na França, os alemães assumiriam que era o início de uma invasão e, portanto, o Luftwaffe era montar um esforço máximo. O Comando de Caças fez lobby no início de 1942, por um ataque para tomar um porto francês para provocar o Luftwaffe em ação com a RAF com vantagem. [9]

Dieppe Edit

Dieppe, uma cidade costeira no departamento de Seine-Inférieure da França, foi construída ao longo de um longo penhasco com vista para o Canal da Mancha. O rio Scie está no extremo oeste da cidade e o rio Arques atravessa a cidade e entra em um porto de tamanho médio. Em 1942, os alemães demoliram alguns edifícios à beira-mar para ajudar na defesa costeira e montaram duas grandes baterias de artilharia em Berneval-le-Grand e Varengeville-sur-Mer. Uma consideração importante para os planejadores foi que Dieppe estava dentro do alcance da aeronave de combate da RAF. [10]

Houve também intensa pressão do governo soviético para abrir uma segunda frente na Europa Ocidental. No início de 1942, a Operação Barbarossa da Wehrmacht claramente falhou em destruir a União Soviética. No entanto, os alemães em uma ofensiva de verão muito menos ambiciosa lançada em junho, estavam bem no sul do território soviético, avançando em direção a Stalingrado. O próprio Joseph Stalin exigiu repetidamente que os Aliados criassem uma segunda frente na França para forçar os alemães a afastar pelo menos 40 divisões da Frente Oriental para remover parte da pressão exercida sobre o Exército Vermelho na União Soviética. [11]

O proposto desembarque dos Aliados na Europa continental em 1943, a Operação Roundup, foi considerado impraticável pelos planejadores militares, e a alternativa de desembarque em 1942, a Operação Sledgehammer, ainda mais difícil. Os britânicos estavam engajados com os italianos e alemães na campanha do Deserto Ocidental desde junho de 1940. Na Segunda Conferência de Washington em junho de 1942, o presidente dos EUA Franklin D. Roosevelt e o primeiro-ministro britânico Winston Churchill decidiram adiar a invasão do Canal da Mancha. e programar a Operação Tocha, a invasão anglo-americana do norte da África francesa, para o final daquele ano. Nesse ínterim, um ataque em grande escala liderado por canadenses na costa francesa tinha como objetivo aliviar parte da pressão sobre a União Soviética. [12]

O objetivo do ataque foi discutido por Winston Churchill em suas memórias de guerra: [13]

Achei mais importante que uma operação em grande escala ocorresse neste verão, e a opinião militar parecia unânime de que, até que uma operação dessa escala fosse realizada, nenhum general responsável assumiria a responsabilidade de planejar a invasão principal. Em discussão com o almirante Mountbatten, ficou claro que o tempo não permitia que uma nova operação em grande escala fosse montada durante o verão (depois que Rutter foi cancelado), mas que Dieppe poderia ser remontado (com o novo codinome "Jubileu") dentro de um mês, desde que medidas extraordinárias fossem tomadas para garantir o sigilo. Por esse motivo, nenhum registro foi mantido, mas, depois que as autoridades canadenses e os Chefes de Estado-Maior deram sua aprovação, eu pessoalmente analisei os planos com o C.I.G.S., Almirante Mountbatten, e o Comandante da Força Naval, Capitão J. Hughes-Hallett.

Operação Rutter Editar

A Operação Rutter foi planejada para satisfazer vários objetivos, como uma demonstração de apoio à União Soviética, para fornecer uma oportunidade para as forças canadenses na Grã-Bretanha enfrentarem o Exército Alemão e como um impulsionador do moral do público britânico, entre os quais estavam partidários vociferantes do uma segunda frente para dar apoio tangível ao Exército Vermelho. Do ponto de vista militar, quando a invasão real da Europa começasse, seria importante capturar rapidamente um porto antes que os alemães pudessem demolir as instalações ou capturá-lo novamente por um contra-ataque. A extensão da fortificação alemã dos portos franceses era incerta e como um ataque anfíbio poderia ser organizado após uma travessia do Canal da Mancha e como um elemento surpresa poderia ser alcançado também estava em dúvida. Rutter poderia fornecer a experiência que seria necessária mais tarde na guerra. Rutter foi uma operação combinada, envolvendo bombardeiros pesados ​​do Comando de Bombardeiros da RAF e os navios pesados ​​da Marinha Real para bombardear as defesas alemãs com vista para as praias de pára-quedas e tropas de planadores silenciariam a artilharia pesada alemã comandando as abordagens ao porto. A força principal de infantaria e tanques pousaria e avançaria pelo porto para os arredores e cavaria para resistir aos contra-ataques até que fosse hora de se retirar e embarcar novamente em seu navio de desembarque. A 2ª Divisão de Infantaria Canadense foi escolhida para a operação e recebeu três meses de treinamento especializado em operações anfíbias até julho. Os canadenses se reuniram nos portos de embarque e embarcaram em seus navios, onde o alvo foi revelado. Aviões alemães avistando e bombardeando os navios montados [14] e o tempo inclemente forçaram um atraso na navegação e em 7 de julho, Rutter foi cancelado e as tropas desembarcaram. [15] [16] [17]

Edição da Operação Jubileu

Os desembarques em Dieppe foram planejados em seis praias: quatro em frente à própria cidade e duas nos flancos leste e oeste, respectivamente. De leste a oeste, as praias receberam os codinomes de Amarela, Azul, Vermelha, Branca, Verde e Laranja. O Comando No. 3 pousaria na praia Amarela, o Regimento Real do Canadá em Azul. Os principais desembarques aconteceriam nas praias vermelhas e brancas pela Royal Hamilton Light Infantry, o Essex Scottish Regiment, Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal, A Commando Royal Marines e a armadura. O South Saskatchewan Regiment e os Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders do Canadá pousariam em Green Beach, [16] e o No. 4 Commando em Orange.

O apoio blindado foi fornecido pelo 14º Regimento de Tanques do Exército (O Regimento de Calgary (Tanque)) com 58 dos tanques Churchill recém-introduzidos em seu primeiro uso em combate, a serem entregues usando o novo tanque de embarcação de desembarque (LCT). [18] Os Churchills, adaptados para operar em águas rasas perto da praia, eram uma mistura de tipos, alguns armados com um canhão QF 2-pdr (40 mm) na torre e um obuseiro de 3 polegadas de apoio próximo no casco, alguns tinham o QF 6-pdr (57 mm) e três Churchills foram equipados com lança-chamas. Os engenheiros usariam explosivos para remover obstáculos para os tanques.

Suporte naval Editar

A Royal Navy forneceu 237 navios e embarcações de desembarque. No entanto, o suporte do tiroteio naval antes do desembarque era limitado, consistindo em seis contratorpedeiros da classe Hunt, cada um com quatro ou seis canhões de 4 polegadas (102 mm). Isso ocorreu por causa da relutância do Primeiro Lorde do Mar, Sir Dudley Pound, em arriscar navios de capital em uma área que ele acreditava vulnerável a ataques de aeronaves alemãs. [19] Mountbatten pediu a Pound para enviar um navio de guerra para fornecer suporte de fogo para o ataque Dieppe, mas Pound estava ciente de que a aeronave japonesa havia afundado o cruzador de batalha HMS Repulsa e o encouraçado príncipe de Gales ao largo da Malásia em dezembro de 1941 e ele não arriscaria navios importantes em águas onde os Aliados não tivessem supremacia aérea. [20]

Editar plano aéreo

Edição de Comando de Caça

Nos últimos dezoito meses de combates de atrito inconclusivos, o Fighter Command havia estabelecido uma medida de superioridade aérea ao alcance de seus caças. As incursões diurnas no espaço aéreo britânico haviam diminuído para um par ocasional de caças-bombardeiros alemães correndo através do Canal, largando suas bombas e correndo de volta. Às 6h15 de 7 de julho, dois navios em Solent, com tropas de Rutter a bordo, foram atingidos, mas as bombas não explodiram e passaram por seus cascos, causando apenas quatro baixas. O reconhecimento fotográfico alemão era muito mais difícil, porque os resultados adequados exigiam que a aeronave voasse em um curso e altura definidos. As saídas repetidas uma ou duas vezes por semana eram ideais para a análise comparativa de fotografias, mas o Luftwaffe conseguia gerenciar apenas um conjunto de fotos por mês. Um reconhecimento parcial foi obtido de 28 a 31 de julho, após Rutter ter sido cancelado e não novamente até 24 de agosto, cinco dias após o Jubileu. [21] O plano aéreo era explorar o ataque para forçar o Luftwaffe para lutar nos termos britânicos e sofrer uma séria derrota do Air Vice-Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory, o comandante do 11 Group Fighter Command deveria comandar o esforço aéreo, para o qual 56 esquadrões de caça, compreendendo caças Spitfire, Hurricane fighter-bombers e Typhoon low - interceptores de nível. [d] Quatro esquadrões Mustang Mk I do Comando de Cooperação do Exército foram fornecidos para reconhecimento de longo alcance e um contingente de cinco esquadrões de bombardeiros deveriam participar para a colocação de fumaça e bombardeio tático. Os pousos podem ser esperados para solicitar um esforço máximo por parte do Luftwaffe no norte da França, Bélgica e Holanda, com cerca de 250 caças e 220 bombardeiros. [22]

Leigh-Mallory controlou a batalha aérea da sede do Grupo 11 na RAF Uxbridge, os comandos fluindo através do sistema normalmente para as salas de controle do Setor e de lá para os campos de aviação. [23] Um oficial da RAF da cabana 3 em Bletchley Park foi destacado para a Sala de Operações do Grupo 11 para filtrar material para as estações Y na RAF Cheadle e RAF Kingsdown que interceptaram a telegrafia sem fio (W / T) e a radiotelefonia (R / T ) transmissões e localização de direção usada para localizar a origem dos sinais. A intenção era reduzir o tempo para passar descriptografias de material do radar alemão, postos de observação e controle de caça para o Grupo 11, por meio de "o oficial mais experiente em Y em Defesa de Caça Alemã e suas ramificações". [24] Os controladores de caça no quartel-general do navio HMS Calpe e Berkeley poderia se comunicar com a cobertura do lutador de ataque em uma frequência compartilhada. Os caças de "Apoio Direto" entraram em contato com a nave-sede enquanto se aproximavam para que o Controlador de Caça pudesse direcioná-los para alvos alternativos, conforme necessário. [23]

A movimentação de esquadrões dentro do Grupo 11 e o reforço com 15 esquadrões de fora do Grupo 11 foram realizados de 14 a 15 de agosto sob o pretexto de "Exercitar o Veneno". [25]

2 Edição de Grupo

Em 29 de junho, o 2 Grupo, Comando de Bombardeiros, recebeu a ordem de enviar dezesseis Douglas Bostons cada do Esquadrão 88 e 107 Esquadrão de suas bases em East Anglian para o Esquadrão RAF Ford em West Sussex 226, com seus Bostons de longo alcance. base para a Operação Rutter. A partir de 4 de julho, as aeronaves deveriam ser mantidas com trinta minutos de prontidão para voar as operações do Circo contra o transporte rodoviário alemão e quaisquer tanques que aparecessem. Para a velocidade, as tripulações foram informadas com antecedência e deveriam ter uma instrução final sobre as dispersões do campo de aviação antes da decolagem. A operação foi cancelada depois que dois navios de assalto foram bombardeados pelo Luftwaffe. Em 14 de agosto, o 2 Group foi notificado de que o ataque a Dieppe estava de volta como Operação Jubileu. A mudança para a RAF Ford foi mantida, mas o 226 Squadron deveria voar da RAF Thruxton em Hampshire para colocar cortinas de fumaça para obstruir os artilheiros alemães no terreno elevado em torno de Dieppe. O Esquadrão No. 226, junto com quatro tripulações de outros esquadrões, começou a treinar em Thruxton com munições de fumaça, bombas de fumaça de 100 lb (45 kg) e Instalações de Cortina de Fumaça, transportadas nos compartimentos de bombas de alguns dos Bostons, que deveriam levar fora antes do amanhecer e operar sem escolta de caça. [26]

Edição de Inteligência

A inteligência na área era escassa: havia posições de canhões alemães escavados nas falésias, mas não haviam sido detectadas ou avistadas por fotógrafos de reconhecimento aéreo. Os planejadores avaliaram o gradiente da praia e sua adequação para tanques apenas examinando as fotos do feriado, o que levou a uma subestimação da força alemã e do terreno. [16] O esboço do plano para a abortada Operação Rutter (que se tornou a base para a Operação Jubileu) afirmava que "relatórios de inteligência indicam que Dieppe não é fortemente defendida e que as praias nas proximidades são adequadas para desembarque de infantaria e veículos blindados de combate em algum". [27]

Forças alemãs Editar

Exército Editar

As forças alemãs em Dieppe estavam em alerta máximo, tendo sido avisadas por agentes duplos franceses de que os britânicos estavam demonstrando interesse na área. Eles também detectaram um aumento do tráfego de rádio e embarcações de desembarque concentradas nos portos costeiros do sul da Grã-Bretanha. [16] Dieppe e os penhascos de flanco foram bem defendidos, a guarnição de 1.500 homens da 302ª Divisão de Infantaria Estática compreendia os Regimentos de Infantaria 570, 571 e 572, cada um de dois batalhões, o 302º Regimento de Artilharia, o 302º Batalhão de Reconhecimento, o 302º Batalhão Anti - Batalhão de tanques, 302º Batalhão de Engenheiros e 302º Batalhão de Sinais. Eles foram implantados ao longo das praias de Dieppe e das cidades vizinhas, cobrindo todos os locais de desembarque prováveis. A cidade e o porto eram protegidos por artilharia pesada na abordagem principal (particularmente nas inúmeras cavernas do penhasco) e com uma reserva na retaguarda. Os defensores estavam estacionados nas cidades e em áreas abertas intermediárias e terras altas com vista para as praias. Elementos do 571º Regimento de Infantaria defenderam a estação de radar Dieppe perto de Pourville e a bateria de artilharia sobre o rio Scie em Varengeville. A leste, o Regimento de Infantaria 570 foi implantado perto da bateria de artilharia em Berneval-le-Grand. [ citação necessária ]

Luftwaffe Editar

o Luftwaffe força de combate composta Jagdgeschwader 2 (JG2) e Jagdgeschwader 26 (JG26), com cerca de 120 caças em serviço, principalmente Fw 190 para se opor aos pousos e escoltar cerca de 100 bombardeiros em serviço de Kampfgeschwader 2 e os bombardeiros anti-navegação especializados de III./Kampfgeschwader 53 (KG 53), II./Kampfgeschwader 40 (KG 40) e I./Kampfgeschwader 77 (KG 77) equipados principalmente com Dornier 217s. [ citação necessária ]

Na noite de 18/19 de agosto, o Comando Costeiro da RAF realizou patrulhas anti-navio de superfície (ASV) na costa de Boulogne a Cherbourg, após o nascer do sol, as patrulhas foram realizadas por combatentes. A frota aliada deixou a costa sul da Inglaterra durante a noite, precedida por caça-minas de Newhaven limpando caminhos através do Canal da Mancha, seguido pela flotilha de oito destróieres e barcos de canhão a motor acompanhando a escolta de embarcações de desembarque e lançamentos a motor.

Editar pousos iniciais

Os pousos iniciais começaram às 04h50 do dia 19 de agosto, com ataques às baterias de artilharia nos flancos da área de desembarque principal. Eram Varengeville - Sainte-Marguerite-sur-Mer (conhecida como Orange Beach) pelo No. 4 Commando, Pourville (Green Beach) pelo South Saskatchewan Regiment e Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders do Canadá, Puys (Blue Beach) pelo Royal Regimento do Canadá e Berneval (Praia Amarela) pelo No. 3 Comando. No caminho, a embarcação de desembarque e as escoltas em direção a Puys e Berneval encontraram e trocaram tiros com um pequeno comboio alemão às 03h48. [16] Os destruidores aliados HMS Brocklesby e ORP Ślązak perceberam o combate, mas seus comandantes presumiram incorretamente que a embarcação de desembarque havia sido atacada pelas baterias da costa e não veio em seu socorro. [2]

Praia amarela Editar

A missão do Tenente Coronel John Durnford-Slater e do Comando No. 3 era realizar dois pousos a 13 km a leste de Dieppe para silenciar a bateria costeira Goebbels perto de Berneval. A bateria pode disparar no pouso em Dieppe, 4 mi (6,4 km) a oeste. Os três canhões de 170 mm (6,7 pol.) E quatro canhões de 105 mm (4,1 pol.) De 2/770 Batterie tinha que estar fora de ação no momento em que a força principal se aproximou da praia principal.

A nave que transportava o No. 3 Commando, aproximando-se da costa a leste, não foi avisada da aproximação de um comboio costeiro alemão que havia sido localizado pelas estações de radar britânicas "Chain Home" às ​​21h30. Os barcos S alemães que escoltavam um navio-tanque alemão torpedearam algumas das embarcações de desembarque do LCP e desativaram o Barco a Vapor 5. Posteriormente, o ML 346 e a Embarcação de Pouso Flak 1 combinaram para afastar os barcos alemães, mas o grupo se dispersou, com algumas perdas. Os comandos de seis naves que pousaram em Yellow I foram derrotados e, incapazes de recuar com segurança ou se juntar à força principal, tiveram que se render. Apenas 18 comandos desembarcaram na praia de Yellow II. Eles alcançaram o perímetro da bateria via Berneval, depois que ela foi atacada por caças-bombardeiros Hurricane, engajando seu alvo com fogo de armas pequenas. Embora incapazes de destruir as armas, seus atiradores por um tempo conseguiram distrair a bateria com um efeito tão bom que os artilheiros atiraram descontroladamente e não houve nenhum caso conhecido dessa bateria afundando qualquer um dos navios do comboio de assalto fora de Dieppe. Os comandos foram finalmente forçados a se retirar em face das forças inimigas superiores. [16] [28]

Orange beach Editar

A missão do Tenente-Coronel Lord Lovat e do Comando No. 4 (incluindo 50 Rangers do Exército dos Estados Unidos) era realizar dois pousos 6 mi (9,7 km) a oeste de Dieppe para neutralizar a bateria costeira Hess em Blancmesnil-Sainte-Marguerite perto de Varengeville. Aterrissando no flanco direito com força às 04h50, eles escalaram a ladeira íngreme e atacaram e neutralizaram seu alvo, a bateria de artilharia de seis canhões de 150 mm. Este foi o único sucesso da Operação Jubileu. [16] O comando então retirou-se às 07:30 conforme planejado. [10] A maior parte do No. 4 voltou com segurança para a Inglaterra. Esta parte da incursão foi considerada um modelo para futuros ataques anfíbios do Royal Marine Commando como parte das principais operações de desembarque. Lord Lovat foi premiado com a Ordem de Serviço Distinto por sua parte no ataque e o Capitão Patrick Porteous No. 4 Commando, foi premiado com a Cruz Vitória. [29] [30] [31] [32]

Praia Azul Editar

O confronto naval entre o pequeno comboio alemão e a embarcação que transportava o No. 3 Commando alertou os defensores alemães na praia Azul. O desembarque perto de Puys pelo Regimento Real do Canadá mais três pelotões da Guarda Negra do Canadá e um destacamento de artilharia foram encarregados de neutralizar as metralhadoras e baterias de artilharia que protegem esta praia de Dieppe. Eles foram atrasados ​​em 20 minutos e as cortinas de fumaça que deveriam ter escondido seu ataque já haviam se levantado. As vantagens de surpresa e escuridão foram perdidas, enquanto os alemães haviam guarnecido suas posições defensivas em preparação para o desembarque. As forças alemãs bem fortificadas mantiveram as forças canadenses que pousaram na praia. Assim que alcançaram a costa, os canadenses se viram presos contra o paredão, incapazes de avançar. Com um bunker alemão colocado para varrer ao longo da parte de trás do paredão, o Regimento Real do Canadá foi aniquilado. Dos 556 homens do regimento, 200 foram mortos e 264 capturados. [10]

Green Beach Edit

Na praia Green, ao mesmo tempo em que o Comando 4 havia pousado em Orange Beach, o 1º Batalhão do Regimento de Saskatchewan do Sul se dirigia para Pourville. Encalharam às 04:52, sem serem detectados. O batalhão conseguiu deixar sua nave de desembarque antes que os alemães pudessem abrir fogo. No entanto, no caminho, algumas das embarcações de desembarque se desviaram do curso e a maior parte do batalhão se viu a oeste do rio Scie, em vez de a leste dele. Por terem pousado no lugar errado, o batalhão, cujo objetivo eram as colinas a leste da vila e a artilharia da Bateria Hindenburg, teve que entrar em Pourville para cruzar o rio pela única ponte. [10] Antes que os Saskatchewans conseguissem alcançar a ponte, os alemães posicionaram metralhadoras e armas antitanque lá, o que impediu seu avanço. Com os mortos e feridos do batalhão amontoando-se na ponte, o tenente-coronel Charles Merritt, o oficial comandante, tentou dar ímpeto ao ataque cruzando repetidamente e abertamente a ponte, a fim de demonstrar que era viável fazê-lo. [33] No entanto, apesar da retomada do ataque, os South Saskatchewans e os Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders do Canadá, que pousaram ao lado deles, não conseguiram atingir seu alvo. [10] Embora os Camerons conseguissem penetrar mais para o interior do que qualquer outra tropa naquele dia, eles também foram forçados a recuar quando os reforços alemães chegaram ao local. [16] Ambos os batalhões sofreram mais perdas, pois retiraram apenas 341 homens que conseguiram alcançar a embarcação de desembarque e embarcar, e o resto foi deixado para se render. Por sua parte na batalha, o tenente-coronel Merritt foi condecorado com a Victoria Cross. [30]

Estação de radar Pourville Editar

Um dos objetivos do Dieppe Raid era descobrir a importância e o desempenho de uma estação de radar alemã no topo de um penhasco a leste da cidade de Pourville. Para conseguir isso, o Sargento de Voo da RAF Jack Nissenthall, um especialista em radar, foi contratado para o pouso do Regimento de South Saskatchewan em Green Beach. Ele deveria tentar entrar na estação de radar e aprender seus segredos, acompanhado por uma pequena unidade de 11 homens dos Saskatchewans como guarda-costas. Nissenthall se ofereceu para a missão com plena consciência de que, devido à natureza altamente sensível de seu conhecimento da tecnologia de radar dos Aliados, sua unidade de guarda-costas de Saskatchewan estava sob ordens de matá-lo para evitar que fosse capturado. Ele também carregava uma pílula de cianeto como último recurso. [34]

Após a guerra, Lord Mountbatten afirmou ser o autor James Leasor, ao ser entrevistado durante a pesquisa para o livro Praia Verde, que "Se eu soubesse das ordens dadas à escolta para atirar nele em vez de deixá-lo ser capturado, eu as teria cancelado imediatamente". Nissenthall e seus guarda-costas não conseguiram superar as defesas da estação de radar, mas Nissenthall foi capaz de rastejar até a parte traseira da estação sob o fogo inimigo e cortar todos os fios telefônicos que levavam a ela. Os operadores recorreram ao rádio para falar com seus comandantes, que foi interceptado por postos de escuta na costa sul da Inglaterra. Os Aliados puderam aprender muito sobre a precisão, localização, capacidade e densidade aprimoradas das estações de radar alemãs ao longo da costa do Canal da Mancha, o que ajudou a convencer os comandantes aliados da importância do desenvolvimento da tecnologia de bloqueio de radar. Apenas Nissenthall e um South Saskatchewan do grupo retornaram à Inglaterra. [14] [35]

Principais desembarques canadenses Editar

Praias vermelhas e brancas editar

Preparando o terreno para os desembarques principais, quatro destróieres bombardeavam a costa à medida que as embarcações de desembarque se aproximavam. Às 05:15, eles se juntaram a cinco esquadrões de furacões da RAF que bombardearam as defesas costeiras e colocaram uma cortina de fumaça para proteger as tropas de assalto. Entre 03:30 e 03:40, 30 minutos após os pousos iniciais, teve início o ataque frontal principal do Essex Scottish e da Royal Hamilton Light Infantry. Sua infantaria deveria ser apoiada por tanques Churchill do 14º Regimento de Tanques do Exército que aterrissavam ao mesmo tempo, mas os tanques chegaram tarde à praia. Como resultado, os dois batalhões de infantaria tiveram que atacar sem blindagem. Eles foram recebidos com tiros de metralhadora pesada de posições escavadas nos penhascos avistados. Incapazes de superar os obstáculos e escalar o paredão, eles sofreram pesadas perdas. [16] Captain Denis Whitaker of the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry recalled a scene of absolute carnage and confusion, with soldiers being cut down by German fire all along the sea wall while his commanding officer, Colonel Bob Labatt, desperately tried to use a broken radio to contact General Roberts while ignoring his men. [36] When the tanks eventually arrived only 29 were landed. Two of those sank in deep water, and 12 more became bogged down in the soft shingle beach. Only 15 of the tanks made it up to and across the seawall. Once they crossed the seawall, they were confronted by a series of tank obstacles that prevented their entry into the town. Blocked from going further, they were forced to return to the beach where they provided fire support for the now retreating infantry. None of the tanks managed to return to England. All the crews that landed were either killed or captured. [10]

Unaware of the situation on the beaches because of a smoke screen laid by the supporting destroyers, Major General Roberts sent in the two reserve units: the Fusiliers Mont-Royal and the Royal Marines. At 07:00, the Fusiliers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Dollard Ménard in 26 landing craft sailed towards their beach. They were heavily engaged by the Germans, who hit them with heavy machine gun, mortar and grenade fire, and destroyed them only a few men managed to reach the town. [10] Those men were then sent in towards the centre of Dieppe and became pinned down under the cliffs and Roberts ordered the Royal Marines to land in order to support them. Not being prepared to support the Fusiliers, the Royal Marines had to transfer from their gunboats and motorboat transports onto landing craft. The Royal Marine landing craft were heavily engaged on their way in with many destroyed or disabled. Those Royal Marines that did reach the shore were either killed or captured. As he became aware of the situation the Royal Marine commanding officer Lieutenant Colonel Phillipps, stood upon the stern of his landing craft and signalled for the rest of his men to turn back. He was killed a few moments later. [16]

During the raid, a mortar platoon from the Calgary Highlanders, commanded by Lieutenant F. J. Reynolds, was attached to the landing force but stayed offshore after the tanks on board (code-named Bert e Bill) landed. [37] Sergeants Lyster and Pittaway were Mentioned in Despatches for their part in shooting down two German aircraft and one officer of the battalion was killed while ashore with a brigade headquarters. [38] [39]

At 09:40, under heavy fire, the withdrawal from the main landing beaches began and was completed by 14:00. [16]

Air operations Edit

At 04:16 six Bostons attacked German coastal artillery in the twilight which led to the results not being observed. Soon afterwards 14 Bostons flew to Dieppe to drop smoke bombs around the German guns on the eastern heights, bombing the Bismarck batteries between 05:09 and 05:44 with a hundred and fifty 100 lb (45 kg) smoke bombs at 50–70 ft (15–21 m), flying through a storm of anti-aircraft fire. A smoke screen 800–1,000 yd (730–910 m) drifted 4–5 mi (6.4–8.0 km) seawards, thickened by the smoke of a burning field of wheat. Six Bristol Blenheim bombers from 13 Squadron and one from 614 Squadron dropped 100 lb (45 kg) phosphorus bombs south of German FlaK sites. Nine of the twelve Bostons were damaged, two crashed on landing and one Blenheim smoke layer from 614 Squadron was damaged and the pilot wounded, the aircraft crashing on landing and bursting into flames. [40] Just before 08:00 two squadrons of cannon-armed Hurricanes were ordered to attack E-boats coming from Boulogne they were accompanied by two fighter cover squadrons. [41]

The airfield at Abbeville-Drucat was attacked by 24 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses, escorted by four squadrons of USAAF Spitfire IXs at 10:30 [42] putting it out of action for "two vital hours". [43] After the attack, a wing of Typhoons made a feint towards Ostend [42] The Mustangs reconnoitred outside the main area looking for reinforcements on the roads to Dieppe and from Amiens, Rouen, Yvetot and Le Havre. Flying from RAF Gatwick, they contacted the HQ ship then, having flown a sortie, passed information to the HQ ship before returning to Gatwick and phoning report to the air commander. Reconnaissance sorties were stopped after 12:00 [42] Although taken by surprise, the German fighters soon began to attack the air umbrella. The RAF was moderately successful in protecting the ground and sea forces from aerial bombing but were hampered by operating far from their home bases. Spitfires were at the limit of their range, with some only being able to spend five minutes over the combat area. [44]

As more German aircraft appeared, the number of British aircraft over Dieppe was increased from three to six squadrons and at times up to nine squadrons were present. [45]

Six squadrons (four British, two Canadian) flew the Spitfire Mk IX, the only British fighter equal to the Fw 190, on its operational debut at Dieppe. [46] During the battle, Fighter Command flew 2,500 sorties over Dieppe and achieved a narrow victory over the Luftwaffe. [46] The plan to centralise information gleaned from German radar, W/T and R/T and other transmissions failed because the Luftwaffe operation against the landing overwhelmed the reporting system and the war room at 11 Group HQ was overwhelmed with reports as the Luftwaffe reaction increased. RAF Kingsdown was not informed about developments and failed to identify German fighter reinforcements arriving from all over France and the Low Countries. The new 6IS Fish party, to decrypt high-speed non-Morse transmissions via the German Geheimschreiber, had no time to prepare and missed important information. [47] Despite the failures of control and intelligence, the air umbrella prevented the Luftwaffe from making many attacks on the landing or the evacuation of the Allied force. [46] [43]

Analyses Edit

German Edit

The capture of a copy of the Dieppe plan allowed the Germans to analyse the operation. Senior German officers were unimpressed General Konrad Haase considered it "incomprehensible" that a division was expected to overrun a German regiment that was supported by artillery, ". the strength of naval and air forces was entirely insufficient to suppress the defenders during the landings". [48] General Adolf-Friedrich Kuntzen could not understand why the Pourville landings were not reinforced with tanks where they might have succeeded in leaving the beach. [49] The Germans were unimpressed by the Churchill tanks left behind the armament and armour were compared unfavourably with that used in German and Soviet tanks. [48] The Germans were pleased with their successful defence whilst noting faults in their own communications, transport and location of support forces but recognised that the Allies were certain to learn some lessons from the operation and set about improving the fixed defences. [14]

Allied Edit

Dieppe became a textbook example of "what not to do" in amphibious operations and laid the framework for the Normandy landings two years later. Dieppe showed the need for

  1. preliminary artillery support, including aerial bombardment [16]
  2. surprise
  3. proper intelligence concerning enemy fortifications
  4. avoidance of a frontal attack on a defended port
  5. proper re-embarkation craft. [50]

While the Canadian contingent fought bravely in the face of a determined enemy, it was ultimately circumstances outside their control which sealed their fate. [50] Despite criticism concerning the inexperience of the Canadian brigades, scholars have noted that even seasoned professionals would have been hard-pressed under the deplorable conditions brought about by their superiors. The commanders who planned the raid on Dieppe had not envisaged such losses. [50] This was one of the first attempts by the Western Allies on a German-held port city. As a consequence, planning from the highest ranks in preparation for the raid was minimal. Basic strategic and tactical errors were made which resulted in a higher than expected Allied (particularly Canadian) death rate.

To help future landings, the British would develop specialist armoured vehicles for engineers to perform tasks protected by armour. Because the tracks of most of the Churchill tanks were caught up in the shingle beach, the Allies began to study beach geology where they intended to land and adapting vehicles for them. [51] The Allies changed their view that capturing a major port was necessary to establish a second front the damage inflicted on a port to capture it and by the Germans firing demolition charges would make it useless afterwards. Prefabricated Mulberry harbours were to be built and towed to beaches during the invasion. [52]

While the RAF were generally able to keep German aircraft from the land battle and the ships, the operation demonstrated the need for air superiority as well as showing "major deficiencies in RAF ground support techniques" and this led to the creation of an integrated tactical air force for army support. [53]

Casualties Edit

Of the nearly 5,000-strong Canadian contingent, 3,367 were killed, wounded or taken prisoner, an exceptional casualty rate of 68 percent. [54] The 1,000 British Commandos lost 247 men. The Royal Navy lost the destroyer Berkeley (on the return crossing, it was hit by bombs from a Fw 190 and then scuttled by Albrighton) and 33 landing craft, suffering 550 dead and wounded. The RAF lost 106 aircraft. RAF Air Sea Rescue Services picked up around 20 pilots at the loss of three of Dover's five High Speed Launches. [55] Among the RAF losses, six RAF aircraft had been shot down by gunners on their own side, one Typhoon was shot down by a Spitfire and two others were lost when their tails broke off (a structural issue with early Typhoons), and two Spitfires collided during the withdrawal across the Channel. [56]

The Germans suffered 591 casualties, 322 fatal and 280 wounded, 48 aircraft and one patrol boat. [57] Of the 50 US Army Rangers serving in Commando units, six were killed, seven wounded and four captured.

The losses at Dieppe were claimed to be a necessary evil. [50] Mountbatten later justified the raid by arguing that lessons learned at Dieppe in 1942 were put to good use later in the war. He later claimed, "I have no doubt that the Battle of Normandy was won on the beaches of Dieppe. For every man who died in Dieppe, at least 10 more must have been spared in Normandy in 1944." [ citação necessária ] In direct response to the raid on Dieppe, Churchill remarked that "My Impression of 'Jubilee' is that the results fully justified the heavy cost" and that it "was a Canadian contribution of the greatest significance to final victory." [58]

To others, especially Canadians, it was a major disaster. The exception was the success gained by the battle-hardened British commandos against the coast artillery batteries near Varengeville. Of the nearly 5,000 Canadian soldiers, more than 900 were killed (about 18 per cent) and 1,874 taken prisoner (37%). [5] [59]

German propaganda Edit

Dieppe was a German propaganda coup in which the Dieppe raid was described as a military joke, noting the amount of time needed to plan such an attack, combined with the losses suffered by the Allies, pointed only to incompetence. [60] The propaganda value of German news on the raid was enhanced by British foot dragging, Allied media being forced to carry announcements from German sources. [61] These attempts were made to rally the morale of the German people despite the growing intensity of the Allied strategic bombing campaign on German cities, and large daily casualties on the Eastern Front. [60] Marshal Philippe Pétain of France wrote a letter of congratulation to the German Army for "cleansing French soil of the invader" of this "most recent British aggression". Pétain suggested that French troops be allowed to serve with German coastal garrisons this suggestion was not viewed with enthusiasm by the German Army and nothing came of it. The letter was given much publicity in Germany and France as a sign of how the French people allegedly appreciated Germany's efforts to defend them from les Anglo-Saxons. Pétain's letter was later used as an exhibit for the prosecution at his trial for high treason in 1945. [62]

The air battle Edit

Fighter Command claimed to have inflicted many losses on the Luftwaffe for an RAF loss of 106 aircraft, 88 fighters (including 44 Spitfires), 10 reconnaissance aircraft and eight bombers 14 other RAF aircraft were struck off charge from other causes such as accidents. [63] Other sources suggest that up to 28 bombers were lost and that the figure for destroyed and damaged Spitfires was 70. [64] The Luftwaffe suffered 48 aircraft losses, 28 bombers, half of them Dornier Do 217s from KG 2 JG 2 lost 14 Fw 190s and eight pilots killed, JG 26 lost six Fw 190s with their pilots. [65] The RAF lost 91 aircraft shot down and 64 pilots 47 killed and 17 taken prisoner, the RCAF lost 14 aircraft and nine pilots and 2 Group lost six bombers. [46] [e] Leigh-Mallory considered the losses "remarkably light in view of the number of Squadrons taking part and the intensity of the fighting" noting that the tactical reconnaissance suffered heaviest with about two casualties per squadron. [67] The Luftwaffe in France was back to full strength within days of the raid. Copp wrote that Dieppe failed to inflict the knockout blow against the Luftwaffe that the RAF sought. Though the Allies continued to lose on average two aircraft for every one German aircraft destroyed for the rest of 1942, the output of fighters by the United States, Britain and Canada combined with better Allied pilot training led to the Luftwaffe gradually losing the war of attrition in the skies above France. Copp concluded that: "The battle for air superiority was won [on] many fronts by continuous effort and August 19, 1942 was part of that achievement". [46] The Forward Air Controller, Air Commodore Adrian Cole, was injured when Calpe was attacked and was awarded the DSO for gallantry. [68]

Prisoners of war Edit

Brigadier William Southam brought ashore his copy of the assault plan, classified as a secret document. Southam tried to bury it under the pebbles at the time of his surrender but was spotted and the plan retrieved by the Germans. The plan, later criticized [ por quem? ] for its size and needless complexity, contained orders to shackle prisoners. [69] The British Special Service Brigade tied the hands of prisoners taken on raids and the practice had been ordered for the Dieppe Raid "to prevent destruction of their documents". Roberts objected to this with the chief of combined operations. After capturing the orders for Operation Jubilee, the Germans threatened on 2 September to shackle the prisoners taken at Dieppe. The War Office announced that if an order existed it would be rescinded and the Germans withdrew the threat on 3 September. On 7 October the Germans revived the controversy after more information emerged about the Dieppe operation and that German prisoners taken during the small 4 October raid on Sark on were alleged to have been tied. On 8 October British and Canadian prisoners were tied in reprisal, which led to counter reprisals. [70] Supposed violations of the Geneva Convention committed by Allied commandos against German POWs at Dieppe and Sark was one of the excuses Hitler gave for the Commando Order of October 1942 for all Allied commando prisoners to be executed. [71] : 73

Civilians Edit

Civilians were handed leaflets by the Canadians telling them it was only a raid and not to get involved, despite this a small number of civilians provided help to the wounded and later passed clothing and food to Canadian prisoners. [14] Civilians also volunteered to help collect and bury the Canadian fallen, including the 475 washed ashore. [14] Hitler decided to reward the town for not helping in the raid by freeing French POWs from Dieppe and Berlin radio announced the release of 750 "sons of Dieppe" imprisoned since 1940. [62] For the town residents' "perfect discipline and calm", although the residents had not had much time to furnish the invaders with an instant Fifth Column, Hitler gave the town a gift of Fr 10 million, to repair the damage caused during the raid. [72]

German preparedness Edit

The fiasco has led to a discussion of whether the Germans knew of the raid in advance. [73] Since June 1942, the BBC had been broadcasting warnings to French civilians of a "likely" action, urging them to quickly evacuate the Atlantic coastal districts. [74] [75] [76] Indeed, on the day of the raid itself, the BBC announced it, albeit at 08:00, after the landings had taken place. [77]

First-hand accounts and memoirs of many Canadian veterans who documented their experiences on the shores of Dieppe remark about the preparedness of the German defences as if they were warned, on touching down on the Dieppe shore, the landing ships were immediately shelled with the utmost precision as troops disembarked. [78] Commanding officer Lt Colonel Labatt testified to having seen markers on the beach used for mortar practice, which appeared to have been recently placed. [79]

The belief that the Germans were forewarned has been strengthened by accounts of German and Allied POWs. Major C. E. Page, while interrogating a German soldier, found out that four machine-gun battalions were brought in "specifically" in anticipation of a raid. There are numerous accounts of interrogated German prisoners, German captors and French citizens who all conveyed to Canadians that the Germans had been preparing for the landing for weeks. [80] [81]

The German convoy that bumped into the Allied ships failed to get messages to shore due to damage to their radio aerials in the fire fight however, the operator of the long range Freya 28 (Radar) at Pourville correctly identified five columns of stationary ships at 03:45 at a range of 35 km. An alert was given to the Navy command who did not believe the warning, but when the ships started to head to shore a further warning was given at 04:35. Troops along the coast had heard gun fire out to sea and some units went to alert. It was 05:05 before German orders came from Le Havre for artillery to open fire. Within an hour the extent of the attack was being understood by German command and reserves were notified to prepare to move to the coast. [14]

Daily Telegraph crossword controversy Edit

On 17 August 1942, the clue "French port (6)" appeared in the Daily Telegraph crossword (compiled by Leonard Dawe), followed by the solution, "Dieppe" the raid on Dieppe took place the next day, on 19 August. [74] The War Office suspected that the crossword had been used to pass intelligence to the Germans and called upon Lord Tweedsmuir, [f] a senior intelligence officer attached to the Canadian Army, to investigate. Tweedsmuir later said, "We noticed that the crossword contained the word 'Dieppe', and there was an immediate and exhaustive inquiry which also involved MI5. But in the end, it was concluded that it was just a remarkable coincidence — a complete fluke". [82] A similar crossword coincidence occurred in May 1944, prior to D-Day. Multiple terms associated with Operation Overlord (including the word "Overlord") appeared in the Daily Telegraph crossword (also written by Dawe) and after another investigation by MI5 which concluded that it was another coincidence. Further to this, a former student identified that Dawe frequently requested words from his students, many of whom were children in the same area as US military personnel. [83]

The Enigma pinch Edit

Research undertaken over a 15-year period by military historian David O'Keefe uncovered 100,000 pages of classified British military archival files that documented a "pinch" mission overseen by Ian Fleming (best known later as author of the James Bond novels), coinciding with the Dieppe Raid. O'Keefe states that No. 30 Commando was sent to Dieppe to capture one of the new German 4-rotor Enigma code machines, plus associated codebooks and rotor setting sheets. The Naval Intelligence Division (NID) planned the "pinch" to pass such items to cryptanalysts at Bletchley Park to assist with Ultra decryption operations. [3] According to O'Keefe the presence of other troops landing at Dieppe was to provide support and create a distraction for the commando units ordered to reach the German admiralty headquarters and capture the Enigma machine they were a cover for the Enigma target.

No. 30 Commando was formed, as the Special Intelligence Unit, in September 1942 (a month after the raid), composed of 33 (Royal Marines) Troop, 34 (Army) Troop, 35 (RAF) Troop and 36 (Royal Navy) Troop. It was later renamed 30 RN Commando (Special Engineering Unit). [4] Later research identified the unit in the Dieppe raid as No. 3 Troop of No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando, known as the X-Troop.

In August 2017, naval historian Eric Grove described 'Enigma Pinch' as "more a reflection of the contemporary fascination with secret intelligence rather than the reality of 1942." [84] Obtaining useful intelligence was among the objectives - including the capture of a four-rotor Enigma cipher machine but it was one of many objectives. Grove concludes that the Dieppe Raid was not, as claimed, cover for a 'snatch' and also recognizes that the decision to form the Intelligence Assault Units to gather intelligence material was not made until after Operation Jubilee had been ordered. [84]

Leah Garret in her 2021 book X-Troop: The Secret Jewish Commandos of World War Two, [85] found new evidence. A British unit was created made up of anti-Nazi Germans who had fled the Sudetenland a five-man team from X Troop was to break into the Enigma machine's room at Dieppe and take the machine and code books. (German speakers were needed to identify the relevant code documents, and possibly, to interrogate prisoners taken.) Garret found a formerly classified after-action report written by "Maurice Latimer", the Anglicised name of the one Sudeten German who returned from the mission, who reported that his orders were "to proceed immediately to German General HQ in Dieppe to pick up all documents, etc of value, including, if possible, a new German respirator" (almost certainly a code word referring to the Enigma machine). The mission failed, with one member killed, another seriously wounded, and two taken prisoner. [86]

Localização Encontro Descrição Fabricante Inscription Window
Sir Arthur Currie Hall, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario 1968 1 light Dieppe Dawn Robert McCausland Limited * In memory of Dieppe Dawn 19 August 1942 by classes of 1948–52

Dieppe War Cemetery Edit

Allied dead were initially buried in a mass grave but at the insistence of the German Army Graves Commission the bodies were reburied at a site used by a British hospital in 1939 in Vertus Wood on the edge of the town. [87] [14] The Dieppe Canadian War Cemetery headstones have been placed back-to-back in double rows, the norm for a German war cemetery but unusual for Commonwealth War Graves Commission sites. When the Allies liberated Dieppe as part of Operation Fusilade in 1944, the grave markers were replaced with standard CWGC headstones but the layout was left unchanged to avoid disturbing the remains.

Honours and awards Edit

Three Victoria Crosses were awarded for the operation: one to Captain Patrick Porteous, Royal Regiment of Artillery attached to No. 4 Commando, in the British forces and two to Canadians – the Reverend John Weir Foote, padre to the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry and Lieutenant Colonel Charles Merritt of the South Saskatchewan Regiment.

Porteous was severely wounded in the battle but was evacuated at the end of the battle both Foote and Merritt were captured and became prisoners of war, although in the instance of Foote, he deliberately abandoned his landing craft and chose to be captured so that he could minister to his fellow Canadians who were now POWs. [88]

Marcel Lambert of the 14th Army Tank Regiment (The Calgary Regiment (Tank)), fought aggressively in the battle and was captured. He, along with all the participants in the raid, was awarded a "certificate" from the Government of France. In the 1980s the Government of Canada issued to all raid veterans a "volunteer service medal." [89]

Despite the failure of the operation, Major General Roberts was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Among the enlisted personnel, Private William A. Haggard [90] of the South Saskatchewan Regiment was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal, and subsequently, field promoted to lieutenant, for his actions during the raid.

A Canadian signalman, Sergeant David Lloyd Hart, was awarded the Military Medal for his efforts during the raid. Hart maintained what became the sole line of radio communications between the men ashore and the commanders out at sea. He is credited with saving the lives of 100 men through his signals work, being able to order their retreat. Hart later became the longest-serving officer in the Canadian Armed Forces, serving in active and honorary roles for 81 years. He died in March 2019, aged 101. [91] [92]


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Allied Nations Support Atlantic Charter

On January 1, 1942, at a meeting in representatives of 26 governments (the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia) signed a �laration by United Nations” in which they pledged their support for the Atlantic Charter’s principles.


World War II Timeline

World War II is the Janus event of the 20th century: a dual-natured homunculus that created even as it destroyed, gave even as it stole -- though what it was giving was far less apparent at the time than what it was taking. Its horrors were alm­ost literally unimaginable, its scope breathtaking. It presented clear demarcations between ideologies, and while soldiers, civilians, and functionaries argued the finer points, more than 50 million people perished.

The articles linked below provide extensive timelines outlining the details and events of World War II. Explore images that headline specific moments in history, including the attack on Pearl Harbor, the D-Day invasion, and the atomic explosion in Hiroshima.

The redrawn Europe of 1918 provoked resentment, political agitation, and an ambitious politician named Adolf Hitler, who found his voice in Germany's democratic process.

Japan's imperial ambitions were matched by Germany's desire for "living space" and Italy's dreams of glory. Britain's appeasement encouraged Adolf Hitler's schemes, while the USA remained sunk in isolationism.

On September 1, 1939, Nazi German forces moved against Poland. Treaty obligations forced England and France to declare war on Germany. For the second time in barely more than 20 years, Europe was at war.

In 1940, the Nazi German war machine conquered much of Western Europe, including France. Britain battled back with great courage. And then came Adolf Hitler's most audacious campaign: Barbarossa.

In the beginning of 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced his lend-lease plan to provide material support to European allies during World War II. By June 1941, the U.S. Army was nearly 1.5 million strong yet still did not join the fight until later in the year.

Adolf Hitler's forces cut across Russia like a scythe and were not halted until they were at the gates of Moscow. In the Pacific, Japan sent planes to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to strike the U.S. fleet that blocked Japan's access to oil. America was in the war.

The high point of Axis conquest came in 1942. Ironically, though, the U.S. Navy had already forced Japan into a defensive posture, and Nazi Germany would find it increasingly difficult to mount sustained offensives.

A renewed offensive by the Nazi Germans in Russia was a seesaw affair that ended in complete disaster for Germany at Stalingrad. In the Pacific, Allied forces advanced on the Japanese homeland, one outlying island at a time.

Italy Falls to the Allies:

Throughout 1943, the limitations of the Nazi German and Japanese war machines became apparent -- not least Nazi Germany's inability to protect its cities from Allied bombers. As World War II production skyrocketed in the United States, the Axis prepared for "total war," in which everybody -- civilian and soldier alike -- was a combatant. Italy surrendered, but the larger war ground on.

At the end of July 1943, a succession of attacks on the northern German port city of Hamburg resulted in the first "firestorm," which killed an estimated 40,000 people. The bomb attacks immediately affected German strategy.

On June 6, 1944, the largest armada ever assembled began to deliver more than 300,000 Allied troops onto beaches at Normandy, France Adolf Hitler's two-front war had come home to him. In the Pacific, the island-hopping campaign brought American bombers within striking range of the Japanese home islands.

Germany's last act was fast approaching: enemies pushing from the east and west, the skies under Allied control. Much of Europe had slipped from Adolf Hitler's grasp, but the Führer fought on with new rocket weapons -- and a shocking surprise for the Allies. Japan lost control of the western Pacific, and much of what remained of its navy was smashed. Still, it would not surrender.

Germany's great cities were destroyed. Its leader paced in an underground bunker, giving orders to army groups that no longer existed. U.S. forces halted at the Rhine River and waited while Stalin's Red Army took its final, apocalyptic revenge on Berlin. By May, World War II in Europe was over.

Standing alone against the unstoppable Allies since May 1945, Japan absorbed terrible aerial bombardment of its cities but kept back 610,000 troops -- plus millions of pitifully armed civilians -- as it anticipated the planned Allied invasion of the home islands. Then on two unimaginable days in August 1945, the skies exploded, and the Second World War was finished.


In August 1942, Roosevelt appointed W. Averell Harriman to represent the United States at a conference with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin. The Moscow Conference sought a common understanding of Soviet and Anglo-American military plans and was the highest level meeting to that time of the three allies. At the conference, Churchill delivered some unwelcome news. He told Stalin that western military planners had concluded that an Anglo-American invasion of Europe that year was "military folly." The Soviets, however, wanted a "second-front" to relieve Nazi pressure. In response to Churchill, Stalin gave Harriman this memo, condemning the prime minister's decision and arguing that British and American forces were capable of invading Europe in 1942.

  • How did Joseph Stalin describe the significance of a second front to the conflict in Europe both in Russia and to its allies?
  • How would you consider the strength the alliance between the Soviet Union and its European and American allies? Use evidence from the source.
  • What did the change of plans and impact of that change communicate about the United States' goals in Europe? How did its nonaction in this matter align with its motivations?
  • Based on the geographic location of the Soviet Union, why might the U.S. not want the USSR to join the fight against Japan?

From Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Japan’s devastating surprise aerial attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, capped a decade of deteriorating relations between Japan and the United States and led to an immediate U.S. declaration of war the following day. Japan’s ally Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, then declared war on the United States, turning the war raging in Europe into a truly global conflict. Over the next three years, superior technology and productivity allowed the Allies to wage an increasingly one-sided war against Japan in the Pacific, inflicting enormous casualties while suffering relatively few. By 1945, in an attempt to break Japanese resistance before a land invasion became necessary, the Allies were consistently bombarding Japan from air and sea, dropping some 100,000 tons of explosives on more than 60 Japanese cities and towns between March and July 1945 alone.

Você sabia? Rhode Island is the only state with a holiday dedicated to V-J Day (its official name is Victory Day) it is celebrated on the second Monday in August. V-J Day parades are held in several other locations across the United States, including Seymour, Indiana Moosup, Connecticut and Arma, Kansas.

The Potsdam Declaration, issued by Allied leaders on July 26, 1945, called on Japan to surrender if it did, it was promised a peaceful government according to “the freely expressed will of the Japanese people.” If it did not, it would face “prompt and utter destruction.” The embattled Japanese government in Tokyo refused to surrender, and on August 6 the American B-29 plane Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, killing more than 70,000 people and destroying a 5-square-mile expanse of the city. Three days later, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, killing another 40,000. 

The following day, the Japanese government issued a statement accepting the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. In a radio address in the early afternoon of August 15 (August 14 in the United States), Emperor Hirohito urged his people to accept the surrender, blaming the use of the “new and most cruel bomb” on Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the country’s defeat. “Should we continue to fight,” Hirohito declared, “it would not only result in the ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation but would also lead to the total extinction of human civilization.”


The Carrollton Chronicle (Carrollton, Tex.), Vol. 38, No. 41, Ed. 1 Friday, August 14, 1942

Weekly newspaper from Carrollton, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Descrição física

four pages : ill. page 20 x 13 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

Informação de Criação

Contexto

Esse newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the Carrollton Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

Editor

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Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper como um primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

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Carrollton Public Library

The Carrollton Public Library strives to provide efficient access to information, educational materials, and services to sustain and inspire the community of Carrollton. The library contains a diverse collection that includes resources such as directories, genealogy materials, encyclopedias, IRS tax forms/publications, and college guides.


14 August 1942 - History

Robert L. Wagner, a native Texan, was born in 1925. He attended graduate school at the University of Texas at Austin, and studied with the historian Walter Prescott Webb. In 1954, he received his M.A. He lived in Austin, Texas and Nacogdoches, Texas, where he taught in the history department of Stephen F. Austin State University.

Wagner served as an aerial gunner with the American 8th Air Force in England during World War II. After the war, he served in the 36th Division National Guard from 1947 to 1949.

In 1963, Wagner began working on the book, The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign, which was published in 1972. As part of his research efforts, Wagner solicited wartime correspondence, photographs, maps, newspaper clippings, diaries and journals from former 36th Division soldiers throughout Texas and the United States. He solicited these materials through letters, announcements in the 36th Division Association Bulletin and other magazines and newspapers, and a speech at a 36th Division reunion. Dr. Dorman Winfrey, Director and State Librarian of the Texas State Library (now known as the Texas State Library and Archives Commission), assisted Wagner and arranged for the material to be donated to the Texas State Library.

36th Division

The 36th Division, also known as the "Texas Division" and the "T-Patchers," was organized at Camp Bowie (then in Fort Worth, Texas) on July 18, 1917 from National Guard units. The division served in France during World War I, remained for occupation duty, and then returned to Camp Bowie and was released from active duty on June 20, 1919.

On November 25, 1940, the 36th Division was once again called to active duty at Camp Bowie in Brownwood, Texas. In 1941, the Division went to Louisiana for maneuvers, where they had mock battles with General Walter Kreuger's Third Army. In February 1942, they moved to Camp Blanding, Florida and prepared to go overseas. Orders changed, however, and instead of shipping out in the summer, the Division continued training in the Carolinas. The Division then spent the winter in Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, and, in April 1943, left for North Africa, where they were held in combat reserve.

The 36th Division finally saw action on September 9, 1943, when they landed at Paestum, Italy in the Gulf of Salerno. They were the first American combat unit to land in Europe. They spent the next 11 months fighting in the Italian campaign. After securing Salerno, the 36th Division moved forward to attack Altavilla and Hill 424. Heavy fighting ensued through September 14, and then, with reinforcements, Allied forces won, securing the Salerno plain.

From the Salerno plain, the 36th Division began a slow move toward Rome. Italian mountains and winter weather combined with German forces to make the advance to Rome slow and dangerous. In the months between November 1943 and the fall of Rome on June 5, 1944, the 36th Division saw some of the heaviest fighting in the Italian campaign. Significant engagements included San Pietro, Anzio and Velletri.

Not all 36th Division engagements were successful. One of the bloodiest and most heavily debated engagements was the attempt to cross the Rapido River January 20 and 21, 1944. Although most officers thought an attempt to cross the Rapido was doomed to fail, General Mark W. Clark ordered the crossing. The operation did fail, and the result was 2,128 casualties and the loss of the better part of the 141st and 143rd regiments. In 1946, the 36th Division Association requested an investigation into the Rapido River crossing and the role of General Clark. The United States House of Representatives' Committee on Military Affairs held a hearing and exonerated Clark, although they did acknowledge the heavy price in lives that the 36th Division paid.

On August 15, 1944, the 36th Division left Italy and landed on the beaches of Southern France. They fought their way northward in France, entered Germany and Austria, and served until the war ended in May of 1945. After six months as occupation troops, the 36th Division returned home.

After World War II, the 36th Division became part of the Texas National Guard. In 1968, the Division was deactivated. Today, its lineage and honors rest with the 36th Brigade of the 49th Armored Division of the United States Army.

Scope and Contents of the Records

The materials in this collection include correspondence (letters, V-mail, telegrams, postcards, memoranda and greeting cards), diaries, journals and reminiscences, military records, journal and newspaper clippings, printed material, photographs, negatives, maps, ribbons, patches, money, audio tapes of interviews, an armband, a book, drawings, minutes, notes, sheet music, poems, congressional testimony, transcripts of interviews, press statements, speeches, reports, outlines, index cards, bibliographies, copies of published chapters and articles, and a design for a book jacket. The collection is the research material of Robert Wagner, historian and author of The Texas Army: A History of the 36th Division in the Italian Campaign, and date [1922?], 1936-1938, 1940-1971, [1975?] (bulk 1942-1945). The bulk of the material is correspondence, clippings, printed material and military records, 1942 to 1945, created by and collected by 36th Division soldiers which Wagner gathered for his research. Much of the correspondence is in V-mail format. V-mail is a process where the U.S. Army microfilmed soldiers' letters, and mailed the microfilm rolls to distribution centers where they were enlarged to 4 x 5 inch prints and sent to the addressees through regular mail. Subjects discussed in the papers include camp and army life, military strategy and operations, family life in the United States, Prisoner of War experiences, the religious life of soldiers, and combat experiences. A great deal of information concerns the Rapido River Crossing, an operation that resulted in heavy losses and accusations of incompetent leadership against the commanding officer, Mark W. Clark. In addition to gathering original materials and remembrances from 36th Division soldiers, Wagner collected World War II photographs, maps and military records relating to the 36th Division's wartime activities. He also collected information from the 36th Division Association, the association for all who had served in the 36th Division at any time, and interviewed some of its World War II-era servicemen at the 1966 Association reunion. Wagner's notes, bibliographies and drafts of chapters document his research and writing process.

When the materials arrived, some were roughly organized by creator, but much of it was not organized in any discernible way. It appeared that an archivist had begun to organize the materials at some time in the past, but did not progress very far.

Letters were removed from envelopes and filed behind the envelopes in which they were contained, in keeping with the method Wagner used. Clippings were photocopied onto acid-free paper. Original maps were separated to the Historic Map Archive. Photographs and negatives were separated to the Prints and Photographs Collection.


Assista o vídeo: Diario de la Segunda Guerra Mundial: 35- Agosto de 1942