Grande Chatfield Manor

Grande Chatfield Manor


Great Chalfield Manor

B rowning's "Oh, estar na Inglaterra agora que abril está lá"puxa com ainda mais pungência à medida que maio avança e o calor da estação aumenta sob o céu azul. A Inglaterra rural em plena floração verdejante deve ser guardada na memória de tantos viajantes no exterior. Por mais fortemente que essa imagem seja gravada, não há retorno ao coração de este verde pode sempre trazer decepção.

Great Chalfield Manor poderia ser o arquétipo perfeito de tal lugar fixador de memória. O falecido e elogiado Nikolaus Pevsner, em seu volume sobre Wiltshire, era da opinião de que Great Chalfield era "um dos mais perfeitos exemplares do solar inglês do final da Idade Média, suave em sua pedra amarelada e alegremente equilibrado na composição de sua fachada sem ser pedanticamente simétrico.". O fato de também ser aninhado em campos intocados - e mantido como um refúgio para a vida selvagem - serve para acumular charme. Certamente, mesmo um dia sombrio de novembro não impediria o lugar de exercer sua atração magnética.

Não conheço nenhuma abordagem mais gentil de tal lugar. Não há nenhuma linha grande e imponente de árvores, nenhuma defesa intimidante, nenhuma vista arrebatadora para trazer alguém até a porta. Em vez disso, com cercas vivas exuberantes e árvores maduras envolvendo as ruas estreitas, alguém sai ao ar livre para encontrar a mansão baixa no final de seu pátio. O estacionamento fica na beira da pista. Sem alcatrão, quiosques ou barreiras. Afaste-se dos poucos carros estacionados e atravesse um fosso, esmagando o cascalho sob os pés - e entre na história.

Tocos de muros exteriores defensivos, portaria e parte da nave da igreja matriz, tiveram as suas fundações implantadas no século XIV - ou mesmo antes, mas grande parte do solar sobreviveu mais ou menos intacto desde o século XV.

A remodelação e - em alguns casos - a reconstrução foram realizadas no século 18 e mais extensivamente na época eduardiana, especialmente nas paredes do jardim e anexos. Excepcionalmente, a fachada norte da mansão permanece mais ou menos como era quando construída em 1467-80. A sólida porta da frente e seu interior postigo porta que permite a entrada uma de cada vez, é realmente a original.

Great Chalfield permanece habitada. Parte dela é ocupada por descendentes da família que comprou a propriedade em 1878 e que a deu ao National Trust em 1943. É, portanto, o lar dos inquilinos da família doadora que administram a casa em nome do Confiar. O acesso ao interior faz-se na companhia de guias muito informativos estritamente sem fotografia no interior.

A Abadia de Lacock, nas proximidades, tem três janelas oriel em estilo gótico que foram adicionadas por Fox Talbot por volta de 1830. Essas duas janelas oriel aqui em Great Chalfield são originais do século XV. A janela maior, a leste, é para a câmara solar ou grande (acima), que era usada para convidados de honra, e a janela menor a oeste era para o apartamento privado da família.

O rei Duncan de Shakespeare entra no castelo de Macbeth observando que as andorinhas estão fazendo ninhos em suas paredes. "Este convidado de verão / A maratona que assombra o templo aprova / Por sua amada mansão, que o hálito do céu / Cheira sedutoramente aqui: sem friso saliente, / Contraforte, nem cunhagem de vantagem, mas este pássaro / Hath fez sua cama pendente e procriador berço: / Onde eles mais se reproduzem e assombram, eu observei, / O ar é delicado. " O fato de ele notar esses pássaros e seus ninhos dissipou suas suspeitas sobre Macbeth. Onde esses pássaros se aninhavam, nada de ruim poderia acontecer com ele, foi a fatídica conclusão do rei. Não há tais suspeitas aqui em Great Chalfield atualmente. Esse ninho se agarra ao teto abobadado da varanda da entrada, sem dúvida como sempre existiu.


Great Chalfield Manor: A magia da Idade Média

A beleza serena desta magnífica mansão do século 15 esconde uma história complexa e movimentada.

A plantação semelhante a uma tapeçaria de folhagem contrastante no Stone Garden quase esconde o lago circular com uma escultura de Antonia Young. Crédito: Val Corbett

Great Chalfield Manor: A magia da Idade Média

A fachada principal. Em cada extremidade do corredor há um alcance transversal e uma empena menor. Aquela à direita é uma varanda

A beleza serena desta magnífica mansão do século 15 esconde uma história complexa e movimentada. No primeiro de dois artigos, Clive Aslet e John Goodall consideram o desenvolvimento medieval da propriedade e a carreira de seu construtor. Fotografias de Paul Highnam.

Desde o início do século 19, o Great Chalfield Manor em Wiltshire é celebrado por suas harmonias antigas e imutáveis. Hoje, cineastas & # 8211 em 2008, foi apresentado em A Outra Garota Bolena & # 8211 acham-no tão irresistível quanto os topógrafos e aquarelas do passado. Paredes prateadas e polvilhadas com líquen erguem-se atrás das íris de um fosso, andorinhas e andorinhas voam em torno das esculturas de feras heráldicas e cavaleiros que decoram a linha do telhado.

Aqui, ao que parece, está uma preciosa herança, cuidadosamente passada ao longo dos séculos desde a Guerra das Rosas. Na verdade, a casa atual é uma criação do final do século 15 de Thomas Tropnell, um advogado, administrador e negociador ganancioso. No entanto, como descobriremos na próxima semana, ele foi amado de volta à sua condição atual, aparentemente imemorial, por um engenheiro eduardiano, Robert Fuller, e seu arquiteto erudito, Sir Harold Brakspear.

O que sabemos de Tropnell sugere um homem obstinado na busca de seus próprios fins, sua voracidade acompanhada por uma ausência de escrúpulos. Não se sabe quando ele nasceu, mas, como morreu em 1487, deve ter sido um jovem ao entrar pela primeira vez no Parlamento em 1429. Dois anos depois, em 1431, ele se casou com a primeira de suas duas esposas: ambas eram ricas viúvas. Na década de 1450, ele também atuou como comerciante em Bristol.

Uma das máscaras no corredor

O lema que ele havia estampado na cornija do teto do grande salão diz ‘Le jong tyra belement’ & # 8211 ‘o jugo puxa bem’ & # 8211 talvez se lembre de seus trabalhos como mordomo dos Barões Hungerford de Farleigh Hungerford. Eles eram apoiadores de Lancastrian, mas Robert, 3º Barão Hungerford & # 8211 já arruinado pelo enorme resgate exigido quando ele foi capturado lutando na França em 1453 & # 8211 foi decapitado após a vitória Yorkista na Batalha de Hexham em 1464. O evento deve tiveram um impacto profundo em Tropnell e seu poder local, embora ele tenha imediatamente garantido o perdão de Eduardo IV.

Foi também em 1464 que começaram os trabalhos de compilação do chamado Tropnell. Cartulary (voltou para Great Chalfield em 1923). Essas compilações de títulos de propriedade são geralmente associadas a fundações eclesiásticas, onde serviram para reunir em um único volume de referência gerações de heranças. Para um particular comissionar um é raro e Tropnell quase certamente teve este volume excepcionalmente esplêndido de 900 páginas feito para reforçar suas reivindicações de propriedade em face de desafios legais. A seção relativa a Great Chalfield é ilustrada com heráldica, uma marca clara de sua importância particular.

É muito provável que Tropnell planejou a transformação arquitetônica de Great Chalfield a partir de 1464, ao mesmo tempo em que os trabalhos começaram no Cartulary. Certamente, no mês de junho seguinte, ele comprou uma pedreira em Hazelbury, a alguns quilômetros de distância, perto de Box, que forneceria a pedra para a construção. Os resultados da datação por anéis de árvores de madeiras no salão pelo Nottingham Tree Ring Dating Laboratory sugerem que as árvores foram derrubadas em 1465-8 e que o trabalho de construção ocorreu naquela época.

O estrado do corredor é iluminado por duas janelas salientes

A este respeito, vale a pena enfatizar que, em termos técnicos, Great Chalfield se compara a um grupo muito sofisticado de edifícios encomendados a ambos os lados da breve deposição de Eduardo IV em 1471, incluindo o trabalho no Castelo de Raglan, Monmouthshire, e o Deanery em Wells em Somerset. Alguns de seus detalhes, notadamente o uso de rendilhado de janela sem bordas decorativas, remetem a ideias desenvolvidas por pedreiros reais na década de 1440. É possível que um pedreiro de Bristol esteja envolvido em seu projeto.

De acordo com o Cartulary, Great Chalfield foi injustamente alienado dos parentes dos Tropnell em meados do século 14 pela quatro vezes casada Constance Fitzwaryn, cujo primeiro marido era um membro menor da família Percy (à qual os Tropnells haviam se unido no século 13). Além de ter se tornado "companheira de cama" de seu "cosyn", o bispo de Salisbury, com quem teve um filho, Constance deixou Great Chalfield para seu neto favorito, William Rous. Ele desperdiçou a estrutura dos edifícios para financiar seu estilo de vida dissoluto.

A luta de Tropnell para colocar as mãos na propriedade foi longa e amarga. Ele o garantiu pela primeira vez em 1443, mas foi expulso e só finalmente garantiu o título em 1467.

Aquarela do corredor de J.C. Buckler (1823) mostrando os bancos de pedra de cada lado e o teto de gesso decorativo, o primeiro exemplo conhecido em um edifício inglês

Mais tarde na vida, Tropnell se saiu melhor em navegar nas perigosas corredeiras políticas da época do que seus mestres Hungerford, obtendo habilmente perdões de Ricardo III e Henrique VII. Ele entrou no Lincoln’s Inn como um membro honorário em 1470. Ele adquiriu seu conhecimento da lei trabalhando para os Hungerfords e usou-o implacavelmente para montar um grande portfólio de propriedades, nem sempre por meios legítimos (ele foi acusado de subornar jurados).

Em um caso, seu oponente (derrotado), Roger Page, o descreveu como "um homem cobiçoso perigoso", um julgamento realmente copiado para o Cartulário de Tropnell. Pode ser que a figura de um comerciante arrogante segurando uma grande bolsa de dinheiro na sala de jantar em Great Chalfield não era & # 8211 como a tradição popular diz & # 8211 um retrato, mas uma imagem da avareza (Fig. 5). No entanto, ele captura o espírito do mundo de Tropnell.

A razão original para o assentamento em Great Chalfield, que é mencionado pela primeira vez como Caldefelle na pesquisa Domesday de 1086, está em uma nascente que alimenta o riacho na parte de trás da casa. Um açude e um lago desviando o riacho criaram um local adequado para um moinho. Hoje, o riacho, o leat e a nascente alimentam, respectivamente, um viveiro de moinhos que serve como um fosso superior e um viveiro de peixes inferior que define o local.

Por tradição, a pintura do salão retrata Tropnell, mas pode ser uma imagem da avareza. Atrás da figura estão pintadas representações de tapeçarias listradas

A igreja paroquial ao lado da casa senhorial foi documentada pela primeira vez no século XIV, mas a nave normanda e a fonte primitiva sugerem uma história muito mais longa. Tropnell expandiu este edifício, acrescentando a ele uma capela sul - que ainda carrega os restos fragmentários de pinturas murais narrando a história de Santa Catarina de Alexandria, padroeira dos advogados - e uma tela de pedra, cuja seção remanescente é decorada com heráldica celebrando as alianças dinásticas da família.

Da história da mansão de que Tropnell se apossou, pouco se sabe com segurança. Partes dela, incluindo uma torre redonda, foram provavelmente preservadas como um pátio de serviço nas traseiras da sua nova casa, mas foram posteriormente demolidas, possivelmente no século XVII, pela guarnição parlamentar aí estacionada. Tudo o que resta deles hoje são as fundações incorporadas ao plano do jardim.

Também é possível que os edifícios tenham sido circundados por uma muralha com torres, cujas ruínas ainda sobrevivem ao longo da linha do fosso. No entanto, esta fortificação poderia igualmente ter sido erguida por Tropnell. Certamente, sua única característica estilisticamente datável é um portal na linha da parede (ainda a entrada principal do imóvel), que certamente é de sua construção. Qualquer que seja a data da parede, no entanto, ela teria fechado o edifício visualmente de sua paisagem.

Dois pintassilgos verdes em diálogo: "Ama a Deus e teme a vergonha. Deseje, adore e guarde o teu nome '

Passando pelo portal de Tropnell, o visitante moderno entra em um pátio externo definido à direita por um magnífico celeiro de cerca de 1752 e uma cordilheira do final do século 15. À esquerda deles está uma guarita que leva ao pátio da casa. A fachada principal do edifício é essencialmente simétrica, sendo o volume central do hall encimado por um par de empenas salientes, uma grande e outra pequena. Altas chaminés e esculturas, incluindo as figuras de cavaleiros e bestas heráldicas, animam o contorno do edifício.

Como é característico dos edifícios domésticos medievais, a função e a importância relativa dos interiores exprimem-se no tratamento variado das janelas. Na seção central da casa, essas aberturas são planas e arqueadas. Em contraste, as câmaras superiores das alas transversais de flanco & # 8211 contendo os apartamentos principais de retirada & # 8211 têm, cada uma, um oriel saliente esplêndido.

Aquela à esquerda, iluminando a Grande Câmara, o cenário para entretenimento formal, é apropriadamente a mais rica das duas. Internamente, incorpora uma magnífica abóbada pendente. A outra preserva duas pedreiras de vidro medieval que representam um diálogo entre os pintassilgos verdes.

A janela da grande câmara com sua abóbada pendente

Entramos no prédio por uma varanda em uma das extremidades do corredor. Passando por um postigo na porta da frente do século 15 fortemente cravejada, o visitante continua na passagem de telas do grande salão.

O salão voltou às suas proporções medievais depois de ser dividido com
um andar em meados do século XIX. Cinco janelas altas criam grandes superfícies de parede em branco para pendurar tapeçarias. A sala é aquecida por uma lareira e, na outra extremidade, o estrado da mesa alta era iluminado de ambos os lados por uma janela saliente.

Este arranjo de janela dupla é muito incomum e é encontrado em uma série de importantes encomendas reais do século 15, incluindo os projetos da década de 1440 para o Eton College, Berkshire, e o grande salão em Eltham, anteriormente em Kent, iniciado em 1475.

A tela na igreja paroquial decorada com uma heráldica que celebra a ancestralidade de Tropnell e as alianças familiares

As proporções do salão, com um teto baixo pendurado bem abaixo da inclinação externa de seu telhado, são incomuns para o período. Normalmente, os telhados dos corredores eram deixados abertos para revelar as vigas e as vigas estruturais. Outra peculiaridade é o conjunto de três máscaras esculpidas com vista para o interior do salão. Frequentemente interpretados como estrabismo, dificilmente são convenientes como tal, mas permitem ouvir tudo abaixo. Eles podem conter velas.

Uma aquarela de 1823 do salão pelo incansável topógrafo John Chessell Buckler mostra que bancos de pedra antigamente corriam ao longo das paredes (a ranhura na qual a extremidade do banco de pedra se encaixava ainda existe). Também ilustra a forma original do teto: a grade criada pelas vigas sobreviventes era anteriormente subdividida em painéis. Estes foram removidos quando o piso foi inserido no corredor e, por volta de 1836, os saliências deles, alguns decorados
com o distintivo de duplo jugo de Tropnell, foi levado ao Palácio do Bispo em Wells para exibição.

Em 1962, Charles Floyd, genro do restaurador eduardiano de Great Chalfield, saiu em busca deles, mas só conseguiu localizar um, que agora está na casa. Surpreendentemente, não é de madeira, mas de gesso. Como recentemente apontado pela historiadora da arquitetura Claire Gapper (www.clairegapper.info), este é o exemplo mais antigo conhecido de estuque decorativo inglês. Também ilustra claramente o desenvolvimento desta forma de arte, associada à arquitetura Tudor e Jacobeana, a partir do entalhe em madeira.

Embora Tropnell tenha criado uma das mais belas mansões da Inglaterra, não se sabe quanto tempo ele passou nela. Sua base de operações continuou sendo outra de suas propriedades, Neston, perto de Corsham, em Wiltshire, e é na capela de São Bartolomeu, em Corsham, que ele está enterrado em Tropnell.

Infelizmente, o túmulo perpendicular não tem efígie, no entanto, felizmente, como ficará evidente na próxima semana, temos uma imagem mais clara dos homens que reviveram a fortuna de Great Chalfield no início do século 20.

A escadaria principal com balaustrada de ferro marcante, provavelmente pelo ferreiro local Robert Bakewell. . © Biblioteca de Imagens Country Life Crédito: Paul Barker / Biblioteca de Imagens Country Life

GRANDE CHALFIELD

Hoje não existe nenhuma paróquia civil de Great Chalfield. Em 1884, por ordem do Conselho de Governo Local sob a Lei de Paróquias Divididas (1876), a paróquia de Great Chalfield, partes da paróquia de Bradford e a paróquia de Little Chalfield com Cottles foram fundidas para formar a nova paróquia civil de Atworth (qv em Bradford). (nota 1) A paróquia de Little Chalfield com Cottles existiu apenas por um breve período. Nos tempos antigos, Cottles parece ter feito parte da paróquia de Bradford (q.v.) e a paróquia de Little Chalfield tinha existência independente (veja abaixo, Igreja). Nos resultados do censo de 1801, Cottles sozinho foi descrito como extraparoquial. Em 1811, dizia-se que Little Chalfield e Cottles juntos constituíam um lugar extra-paroquial, e continuaram a ser assim descritos até 1857, quando se tornaram uma freguesia segundo a Lei de Lugares Extra-paroquiais (20 Vict. C. 19). A paróquia eclesiástica de Great Chalfield consiste em 701 acres. (nota 2)

Great e Little Chalfield formam a parte sul da freguesia de Atworth. Eles se encontram na região de Oxford e Kimeridge Clay, no norte e centro-oeste de Wiltshire, a uma altura entre 150 e 200 pés acima do nível do mar. (nota 3)

A mansão Great Chalfield (veja abaixo, Manors) fica a 4,8 km a nordeste de Bradford. Little Chalfield fica ½ milha a oeste de Great Chalfield. Há um parque a oeste de Little Chalfield. Chalfield Brook, que nasce em South Wraxall e flui ao longo da fronteira sul da freguesia de Atworth, passando por Chalfields, vira para o norte e finalmente para o leste. A Fazenda Lenton fica ½ milha ao norte de Great Chalfield, além do braço norte do riacho.

Por cerca de dois anos, durante a Guerra Civil, a mansão de Great Chalfield foi guarnecida para o Parlamento. A guarnição era um posto avançado daquela em Malmesbury e consistia em cerca de 200 homens, com 100 cavalos. Grande Chalfield foi provavelmente ocupada pela primeira vez em julho ou agosto de 1644. Logo depois (antes de 5 de setembro de 1644), as tropas parlamentares se retiraram para Malmesbury com a aproximação das forças realistas de Bath e Bristol. Os monarquistas ocuparam a mansão por um ou dois dias, mas foram forçados a se retirar por sua vez devido à abordagem do coronel Edward Massey. Em março de 1645, a presença da guarnição de Chalfield foi provavelmente uma causa importante da derrota e captura do regimento de cavalaria realista comandado pelo coronel Sir James Long. Poucas semanas depois (provavelmente entre 7 e 19 de abril de 1645) Chalfield foi sitiado pelas forças realistas sob o comando de Gõring e, em julho do mesmo ano, a guarnição de Chalfield derrotou a guarnição realista de Lacock, que foi surpreendida enquanto procurava sortie. Por volta dessa época, o Comitê Parlamentar de Wiltshire tinha sua sede em Chalfield. A guarnição permaneceu em Chalfield até o outono de 1646. Seu comandante nos primeiros meses foi o capitão Dymock e, a partir de janeiro de 1645, o tenente-coronel. Pudsey. A guarnição vivia principalmente de pão e queijo, bacon e cerveja, que eram obtidos por meio da responsabilização das paróquias vizinhas. (nota 4)

Richard Warner (1763-1857), divino e antiquário, foi nomeado Reitor de Great Chalfield em 1809 por seu antigo colega de escola e amigo Sir Harry Burrard Neale. Ele manteve os vivos até sua morte, mas parece improvável que ele já tenha residido na paróquia. Ele foi um escritor prolífico cujas publicações incluíram muitos trabalhos topográficos, entre eles Hampshire Extraído de Domesday, História da Ilha de Wight, História de Bath, e História da Abadia de Glastonbury. (nota 5)

Mansões

A mansão de EXCELENTE ou EAST CHALFIELD foi realizada em 1086 por Ernulf de Hesding. (nota 6) Ernulf manteve dois feudos chamados Chalfield e não está claro se Great Chalfield foi aquele mantido antes da Conquista por Wallef, ou aquele mantido por Godwin. Em um alvará de 1001, há uma referência ao marco de Aethelwine em Chalfield. (nota 7)

O pequeno Chalfield (veja abaixo) passou pela filha de Ernulf, Aveline, para os FitzAlans, mas o Grande Chalfield evidentemente desceu por meio de outra filha, Maud, para os condes de Salisbury. (nota 8) Em 1242–3, o honorário de 1 cavaleiro em Chalfield foi mantido por Henry de Percy como em honra de Trowbridge. (nota 9) A descida subsequente da soberania segue a de Trowbridge (q.v.). No século 15, dizia-se que o condestável do castelo de Trowbridge era pertencente à mansão e por isso estava longe de sua mente. Até que ponto a afirmação da antiguidade é confiável pode ser duvidoso. Ele desceu com a soberania e é mencionado pela última vez em 1840 (ver Trowbridge). (nota 10)

Durante o século 12, Great Chalfield foi aparentemente mantida por uma família que derivou seu nome da paróquia. Em 1201 Ralph de Torenny liberou para William de Percy sua reivindicação de ½ dos honorários de cavaleiro em Chalfield, em troca do qual William rendeu a Ralph todas as suas reivindicações sobre as terras que lhes cabiam da herança de Hugh de Scandefeld (Chalfield), seu avô e Julia, filha de Hugh. (nota 11) Parece provável que Ralph e William eram irmãos uterinos, filhos de Julia. William pode ser idêntico ao inquilino do nome que, em 1166, recebeu o honorário de cavaleiro em Wiltshire de Humphrey de Bohun. (nota 12)

Peter de Percy, provavelmente o sucessor de William, perdeu suas terras em 1216 quando o rei John as concedeu a Ingram des Preaux. (nota 13) Peter era provavelmente o 'Sir Piers de Percy' mencionado no pedigree da família no cartulário de Tropenell como filho de 'Sir Harry de Percy'. (nota 14) Beatriz, relíquia de Pedro de Percy, e provavelmente uma benfeitora do priorado de Farleigh, (nota 15) foi, de acordo com o Tropenell Cartulary, filha de 'Sir Otys Dynham de Devonshire'. (nota 16) Em 1242–3, o honorário de 1 cavaleiro em Chalfield foi mantido por Henry de Percy. (nota 17) Seu sucessor foi William de Percy, a quem em 1260 o Prior de Farleigh confirmou a doação feita anteriormente a Beatrice de Percy. (nota 18) William era provavelmente idêntico ao homem de mesmo nome que estava envolvido em uma disputa com Walter de Chaudefeld (veja abaixo, Agriculture and Mills). De acordo com o cartulário, William foi sucedido por um filho Henrique. (nota 19) Em 1316, Roger de Percy dominou Chalfield. Ele era um rebelde, e em agosto de 1320 foi um daqueles a quem o perdão foi concedido por ofensas contra os Despensers. (nota 20) Apesar do perdão, suas terras em Chalfield estavam nas mãos do rei desde Michaelmas 1320. Como Sir Roger, ele lutou contra o rei na Batalha de Boroughbridge. (nota 21) Em 1325, suas terras em Great Chalfield foram arrendadas por seis anos a George de Percy, o inquilino de Little Chalfield. (nota 22) Sir Roger evidentemente recuperou a posse após a queda de Eduardo II e, em 1327, estava reclamando que George de Percy havia invadido sua propriedade. (nota 23) O filho de Sir Roger, Sir Henry de Percy, foi bem-sucedido antes de 1338, ano em que fez uma apresentação à igreja de Great Chalfield e estabeleceu o feudo sobre si mesmo, sua esposa Eleanor e seus herdeiros. (nota 24) Houve um filho de seu casamento, Beatrice. Sir Henry casou-se como sua segunda esposa, Constance, "companheira de cama e cosyn de Maister Robert Wayville, bisshoppe de Salisbury, nascido em nenhuma terra, nem em nenhuma arma". (fn. 25) Em 1349, Sir Henry estabeleceu o feudo sobre si mesmo e Constança e sua emissão e, em default para os herdeiros certos de Henrique, o acordo foi repetido em 1354. (fn. 26) Nessa época, o bispo Wyville recebeu ou reivindicou terras em Great Chalfield. Em 1356, João, filho de Roger de Percy, entregou ao bispo qualquer direito que ele pudesse ter sobre o feudo. (nota 27) Apesar disso, de acordo com a Tropenell CartularyHenry de Percy continuou a manter o feudo até que ele partiu em peregrinação a Jerusalém, levado a essa etapa por 'o travesso lyf a disse Constance sua segunda wyf lyved com o bisshoppe Wayvile e com outros'. (nota de 28) Henrique morreu em Colônia a caminho de Jerusalém e Constança ocupou Great Chalfield em virtude dos assentamentos de 1349 e 1354. Ela se casou como seu segundo marido, John de Percy ou Pershay, senhor de Little Chalfield. Os Percys de Little Chalfield aparentemente não eram parentes dos de Great Chalfield. (nota 29) Em 1359, o feudo de Great Chalfield foi reivindicado por Beatrice, filha de Sir Henry por sua primeira esposa. Ela citou o acordo de 1338, mas perdeu a ação e em 1361 foi induzida a renunciar às suas reivindicações à madrasta. (nota 30) No mesmo ano ou antes, Constance de Percy havia se casado, como seu terceiro marido, Sir Philip FitzWarin, e no final de 1361 ela estabeleceu o feudo entre si e seu marido e seus herdeiros, com o restante para seu filho Robert, seu irmão Hugh e seus herdeiros certos. (nota 31) De acordo com o cartulário, Robert era o filho bastardo de Constança com o bispo Wyville. (nota de rodapé 32) Sir Philip FitzWarin e Constance mantiveram o feudo em 1366. (nota de rodapé 33) Como seu quarto marido, ela se casou com Henry de la Ryvere e, em 1401–142, tornou-se viúva. (nota 34)

Com Sir Philip, Constance teve duas filhas, Isolde, que se casou com John Rous de Imber, e Joan, que se casou com Thomas Beaushyn. (nota 35) Em 1416, Constance estabeleceu a reversão de Great Chalfield para seu neto William Rous, filho de Isolde, com o restante para seu irmão John Rous, e em default para Thomas Beaushyn e sua esposa Joan. (nota 36) A validade legal deste e do acordo anterior feito por Constança era obviamente duvidosa em vista das implicações criadas por Sir Henry de Percy em 1349 e 1354.

Constance morreu entre 1417 e 1425 e William Rous entrou na mansão. (nota 37) Em 1427, entretanto, foi reivindicado por Thomas Beverley, filho de Beatrice, filha de Sir Henry de Percy por seu terceiro casamento com Robert Beverley. (nota 38) Thomas Beverley baseou seu caso na implicação de 1354, enquanto os réus apresentaram em resposta a libertação de Beatrice em 1361. Beverley respondeu que a libertação havia sido extorquida de sua mãe em sua nonage sob coação. (nota 39) Ele morreu antes que o caso fosse decidido, mas a causa de seu filho Thomas foi assumida pelos Percys de Little Chalfield, que mais tarde reivindicaram o feudo por conta própria. (nota 40) Em julho de 1431, eles e os Beverleys reuniram 'vários homens de Salisbury e de outros lugares' em sua mansão de Little Chalfield com o propósito de expulsar William Rous de Great Chalfield, mas ele também havia mobilizado suas forças - florestais de Blackmore e Pewsham. O resultado não é registrado. (nota 41)

Outro reclamante de Great Chalfield aparece nessa época. Em um processo da chancelaria do período de 1433 a 1443, William Rous declarou que, a pedido de Thomas Tropenell, ele enfeoffou Thomas e Henry Long e Richard Chok do feudo de Great Chalfield. O pedido fora feito, alegou Rous, porque Tropenell declarara a muitas pessoas notáveis ​​que estava tão enfeitado, e disse que sua honra não poderia ser salva a menos que o feoffment fosse feito. William, "sabendo que Thomas era um chefe de seu conselho, recebendo uma grande quantia anual dele", concordou em fazer o que Thomas pedia, com a condição de que Thomas o renegasse a qualquer momento que ele pudesse exigir. William reclamou que a condição não foi cumprida. (nota 42) Quando o caso foi ouvido, entretanto, o querelante não compareceu e Thomas Tropenell foi dispensado. O caso do réu é registrado no Tropenell Cartulary. (nota 43) É que o feoffment foi feito sob a condição de que, se Rous tivesse emissão legal, os feoffees deveriam fazer uma herança para ele e seus herdeiros, mas se não, a propriedade deveria passar após sua morte para Tropenell e seus herdeiros. De acordo com o cartulário, Rous transmitiu o feudo a William Darell e outros, que então (1438) o transmitiram a Tropenell. (nota 44)

Em 1444-5, Thomas Beverley processou Thomas Tropenell, Henry Long e Richard Chok pela posse de Great Chalfield, mas sem sucesso. (nota 45) Em 1447, Thomas Tropenell e seus cafés transferiram a mansão para William Rous, que decidiu sobre si mesmo e sua segunda esposa Isabel e sua questão. (nota 46) O feudo foi logo depois alugado para Thomas Tropenell que, de acordo com o cartulário, era o inquilino do feudo quando Rous morreu em 1452. (nota 47) A relíquia de Rous, Isabel, entrou no feudo após sua morte, mas foi ejetada por Tropenell, a quem em 1454 ela desistiu de sua reivindicação em troca de uma anuidade de £ 5. (nota 48) Em 1459, Tropenell aumentou a anuidade com o pagamento de £ 53. (nota 49)

Enquanto isso, em 1454, Thomas Beverley fez uma entrada na mansão, mas se retirou no mesmo ano e posteriormente liberou seus direitos sobre Tropenell em várias ações. (nota 50) Beverley novamente reivindicou Great Chalfield em 1459, mas Tropenell produziu essas ações e ganhou o caso. (nota 51)

Mais uma reivindicação ao feudo foi feita nesta época por Joan Beaushyn, como tia e herdeira de William Rous. Joan confiscou a mansão em 1459, mas depois desistiu de seu direito a Tropenell. (nota 52) Logo depois disso, em 1466, Thomas Beverley novamente implorou a Tropenell e, dessa vez, obteve o veredicto. Evidentemente, Beverley então vendeu seus direitos para Tropenell, que retomou a posse de Great Chalfield. (fn. 53) Thomas Tropenell era um descendente direto de William de Percy de Great Chalfield (fl. 1260). (nota 54) Ele foi possivelmente implicado na conspiração de Buckingham, pois em 1484 foi-lhe concedido o perdão por todos os crimes cometidos por ele antes de 3 de novembro. (nota 55)

Thomas Tropenell morreu em 1488 mantendo o feudo de Great Chalfield do Ducado de Lancaster em honra de Trowbridge, pelo serviço (como foi dito) de ser condestável do castelo de Trowbridge. (nota 56) Ele foi sucedido por seu filho Christopher, que morreu em 1503, deixando um filho Thomas, um menor. (nota 57) Parte da mansão foi atribuída em dote a Anne, relíquia de Christopher. (nota 58) Em 1511, ainda menor de idade, Thomas Tropenell casou-se com Eleanor, filha de Sir Thomas Englefield de Englefield (Berks.). (nota de 59) Thomas fez prova de sua idade em 1519 e, em 1523, concedeu o feudo a Thomas Englefield, sargento de lei, para a execução de seu testamento. (nota de 60) Ele morreu em 1547, tendo resolvido Great Chalfield consigo mesmo, com sua esposa e com seu filho, com o restante para suas irmãs. (fn. 61) Giles, filho de Thomas, sucedeu a seu pai e morreu ainda menor em 1553. (fn. 62) O feudo passou para suas quatro irmãs, Anne, esposa de John Eyre, Elizabeth, esposa de William Charde, Eleanor, esposa de Andrew Blakman e Mary Tropenell. (nota 63) Mary mais tarde casou-se com John Young e, em 1557, ela com suas irmãs e seus maridos transmitiu a mansão a William Button e Richard Parkins. (nota 64) Este meio de transporte provavelmente tinha o propósito de resolver o problema com John Eyre e Anne, que em 1563 o resolveram sobre eles próprios e os herdeiros de Anne. (nota 65) Quando John morreu em 1581 ele foi sucedido por seu filho (Sir) William Eyre. (nota de rodapé 66) Sir William morreu em 1629, logo após seu terceiro casamento, e no ano seguinte seu filho Sir John Eyre vendeu a mansão para Richard Gurney ou Bacamarte. (fn. 67) Gurney was a London mercer, an ardent Royalist, and a benefactor of the Clothworkers' Company and St. Bartholomew's Hospital, of which corporations he was warden. He was chosen Lord Mayor of London in 1641 after a fiercely contested election in which 'each part put themselves in battle array, and the puritans were overcome with hisses'. (fn. 68) In the same year he was knighted and a few weeks later made a baronet. He was committed to the Tower by the Parliamentarians and remained there until shortly before his death in 1647. (fn. 69) He had a son, who predeceased him, and two daughters, Elizabeth, wife of Sir John Pettus, and Anne, wife of Thomas Richardson. Meanwhile a life interest in the manor was retained by Anne third wife and relict of Sir William Eyre. (fn. 70) Anne was the tenant of the manor house at the time it was garrisoned in the Civil War. She apparently died before 1649 for in that year the daughters of Sir Richard Gurney sold the manor to Thomas Hanham junior of Wimborne Minster (Dors.), the purchase money being handed over in accordance with the will of Sir Richard to his relict Elizabeth. (fn. 71) Hanham died without issue in the following year (1650) and the manor passed to his nephew William Hanham, created a baronet in 1667. (fn. 72) Sir William died in 1671, leaving Great Chalfield to his relict Elizabeth for life. She, with her son Sir John and his wife Jane, must have sold the manor before 1678 to John Hall of Bradford, who presented to the church in that year. (fn. 73) In 1705 John Sartain leased the manor from him. (fn. 74) Great Chalfield passed like Hall's Manor in Bradford (q.v.) to Evelyn, 1st Duke of Kingston, who in 1726 leased it with the demesnes and water mill to Mary Willis and Thomas Hunt at £244 a year. (fn. 75) In 1763 it was let at the same rent to Widow Hunt and her son Henry. (fn. 76) Evelyn, 2nd Duke of Kingston, sold the manor in 1769 to Robert Neale of Corsham. (fn. 77) Robert died in 1776 and was succeeded by his granddaughter Grace Elizabeth, wife of Sir Harry Burrard, who assumed the additional surname of Neale on his marriage. (fn. 78) Sir Harry died in 1840, without issue, and the manor was sold by his relict to Sir George Burrard, who died in 1856. In 1878, shortly before her death, Sir George's relict sold it to George Pargiter Fuller of Neston, in whose family it has since remained. (fn. 79)

In 1943 the manor house of Great Chalfield, with 9 acres of land and an endowment fund, was given to the National Trust by Major R. F. Fuller, who also signed covenants guaranteeing the amenities of a further 340 acres. (fn. 80)

In 1769 there was a rent of 5s. 9d. called 'Sheriffs Torn' payable out of the manor of Great Chalfield at Michaelmas to Zachary Shrapnel. (fn. 81)

Great Chalfield Manor House was built by Thomas Tropenell in c. 1480, on the site of a ruined fortified house. Of the earlier building all that remains are the bases of the east and north curtain walls, the lower part of a circular tower at the north-east angle, and traces of a half round tower to the west near the bridge. Within the curtain at the north-east corner is the parish church of Great Chalfield. Tropenell's house was considerably altered about 1550 among the alterations was probably that of the long west wing for use as stables and servants' quarters. By 1837 a quadrangle of domestic offices had disappeared and other parts were in ruins, and in 1840 the building was adapted as a farmhouse. Between 1905 and 1912 the house was thoroughly restored under the supervision of (Sir) Harold Brakspear. The work included the rebuilding of the solar, the reconstruction of a 16th-century stone chimney-piece from original fragments recovered from a rockery, and the insertion of a staircase in the east wing. The principal front and entrance are on the north and are approached by a bridge over a moat and by a gateway at the northern end of the west wing. The front remains much as it originally was, with the hall in the centre, two projecting gabled wings with oriel windows, and, on the inner side of each, lesser gables, the western forming the porch. The south front, which originally had a southward extension, has been partly reconstructed to the original pattern, including a timber-framed portion on the west. On the apexes of the gables are carved the figures of armed knights. Inside the house are many 15th- and 16th-century features, including the original main timbers of the hall bearing the Tropenell motto, stone groined ceilings with the Tropenell arms, and panelling, chimney-pieces and decorated plaster-work dating from the mid-16th century. (fn. 82)

The manor of LITTLE ou WEST CHALFIELD was held in 1086 by Ernulf de Hesding. Before the Conquest it had been held either by Wallef or by Godwin. (fn. 83) In 1242–3 the manor was held by William 'de Chaudefeld' of Viel Engaine. (fn. 84) It seems likely that Ernulf de Hesding conveyed the manor to a contemporary named Urse, and that it passed subsequently to Reynold FitzUrse (one of the murderers of Becket) and on the failure of his direct heirs to Viel Engaine, who was the descendant of Reynold's sister Margaret. (fn. 85) The overlordship of Little Chalfield passed from Viel Engaine at his death in 1248 to his son Henry, who between that time and 1272 gave it to the priory of Worspring (Som.) whose founder had been William de Courtenay, the last direct descendant of Reynold FitzUrse. (fn. 86) The overlordship was recognized as belonging to Worspring at least as late as 1428, but in 1477 was said to belong to the Abbess of Shaftesbury. (fn. 87)

The William de Chaudefeld who was tenant of Little Chalfield in 1242–3 was probably the descendant of Walter de Chaudefeld who was a tenant in the hundred of Bradford in 1198. (fn. 88) Walter de Chaudefeld, or a namesake, was in 1166 the tenant in Northamptonshire of Reynold FitzUrse. (fn. 89) In 1272 the tenant of Little Chalfield was William de Chaudefeld. (fn. 90) In 1285 another Walter de Chaudefeld was in possession, and a Walter de Chaudefeld presented in 1308 to the 'chapel of Chalfield'. (fn. 91)

The next tenant of the manor was George de Percy, who held it in right of his wife Margaret, who was probably the heiress of Walter de Chaudefeld. (fn. 92) George held the manor in 1318. (fn. 93) He was a retainer of Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, and shared the earl's downfall in 1330. George was attainted and the manor seised into the king's hand. (fn. 94) Little Chalfield was, however, restored to him in the same year. (fn. 95) George de Percy was alive in 1344 (fn. 96) but dead in 1348, when an inquisition was held to decide whether his relict Margaret should be permitted to assign land and rent to support a chantry chaplain in the church of Little Chalfield. (fn. 97) At this time Margaret held 9 acres of land and 2s. rent of Henry de Percy (lord of Great Chalfield) by knight service, and the said Henry held the same property of the lords of Trowbridge by service of the ward of a tower there for forty days in time of war. It is possible that this tenure by castle-guard may be connected with the later claim of the lords of Great Chalfield to the office of constable of Trowbridge castle (see above). In 1359 the lord of Little Chalfield was John de Percy, who married Constance de Percy of Great Chalfield. John may have been the son of George, son of the above George de Percy. (fn. 98) In 1362 the Prior of Worspring presented to the church of Little Chalfield by reason of the minority of John, son of Thomas de Percy. (fn. 99) This Thomas de Percy was probably the son of George de Percy the elder. A John de Percy presented to the church in 1388. (fn. 100) Alice de Percy, daughter of John de Percy, (fn. 101) was the last of her line. She married first Richard Phillipps, apelido Rous, the illegitimate son of John Rous, which John was the husband of Isolde, daughter of Sir Philip FitzWarin and Constance his wife. (fn. 102) As her second husband Alice married John Bourne, who in 1428 held immediately of the Prior of Worspring certain lands and tenements in Chalfield, formerly of George Percy, for the service of ½ knight's fee. (fn. 103) John Bourne's heir was his son John, who died in 1477. Two years before his death John Bourne the younger had settled Little Chalfield on his wife Margaret and their heirs and the direct heirs of John. (fn. 104) The heir of John was his sister Gille, wife of Edward Cadell. In 1481 Gille and Edward recognized that the manor should be held for life by William Walrond and his wife Margery (doubtless the relict of John Bourne) who conceded the remainder to Gille and Edward. (fn. 105)

Gille and Edward Cadell seem to have been succeeded by John Savery, for in a Chancery suit of the late 15th or early 16th century Avyse and Anne Savery stated that their father John Savery had been seised of the manor of Chalfield and that on his death it had descended to them. (fn. 106) Avyse and Anne divided the estate between them certain tenements in Chalfield and elsewhere, together with the chapel of St. Blaise in Chalfield passed to Anne, who married Thomas Bamfield and in 1545 conveyed her property to Thomas Horton. (fn. 107) Avyse as her share took the manor of Little Chalfield and the advowson of the chapel of St. John the Baptist. She married John Westbury and in 1536 settled the manor upon her son William Westbury. (fn. 108) In 1584 the manor was conveyed by William Westbury, Joan his wife, and John his son to Richard or Rice Phillipps, and in the same year Phillipps conveyed it to (Sir) William Eyre of Great Chalfield. (fn. 109) In 1614 Sir William apparently settled Little Chalfield on Robert Eyre—his son by his second marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of John Jackman, Alderman of London. (fn. 110) In 1630, after Sir William's death his eldest son Sir John confirmed this settlement. (fn. 111)

Robert Eyre was a Royalist and his estates were sequestered in 1644 for his delinquency in pressing soldiers into the king's service. He submitted in 1645 and took the National Covenant, and in the following year was allowed to compound for his estates. (fn. 112) He died in 1651, (fn. 113) and seems to have been succeeded by John Eyre, probably his son, who held Little Chalfield in 1651 and 1670. (fn. 114) From John the manor passed to Robert Eyre, probably his brother, who in 1675 conveyed it to Francis Hall and John Hill. Hall and Hill may have been trustees for Sir Edward Baynton, to whom (according to a note inserted in the Tropenell cartulary in 1695) Little Chalfield was sold about this time. In 1699 Thomas Baynton, younger son of Sir Edward, leased the manor for 60 years to John Foster and George Hatton. (fn. 115) In 1701 Baynton and his wife mortgaged the manor to Robina Woodfine and Daniel Germaine for £1,500. (fn. 116) Robina afterwards transferred her interest to Daniel and in June of the same year the manor was conveyed to Daniel. (fn. 117) The next mention of the manor that has been traced is in 1795, when it was conveyed by Thomas Lulham, Benjamin Harrison, and Sarah his wife to William Gill. (fn. 118) The exact meaning of the conveyances of 1675 and after is not clear. Thomas Baynton was the legal father of Rachel Baynton, who inherited the wide estates of John Hall of Bradford, her actual father (see Hall's Manor in Bradford). As shown above John Hall had acquired Great Chalfield before 1678 and he may have had an interest also in Little Chalfield. If Little Chalfield, like Great Chalfield, passed to Rachel (who married William Pierrepoint, son and heir of the 1st Duke of Kingston) then the absence of later references to Little Chalfield is probably due to the merging of the two manors. In this case the parties to the conveyance of 1795 may have been trustees.

The estate known as MOXHAMS is of ancient origin. In 1236 Henry son of William conveyed to Thomas Cusin and Juliana his wife lands in 'Mockesham'. (fn. 119) Henry de Mochesam occurs as a witness in a deed probably of the time of Henry III or Edward I. (fn. 120) Adam de Mockesham, who died in 1277, had held in Moxham 62 acres arable, 5 acres meadow, 2 /3 acre pasture and 5½ acres wood. (fn. 121) John de Mockesham held land in East Chalfield about 1300. (fn. 122) John de Mokesham was a juror at Bradford in 1342. (fn. 123) John of Moxham and Robert his son occur in 1460 in deeds concerning Atworth Cottles. (fn. 124) Christopher Moxham, who died in 1596, held a messuage called Moxham in the parish of Chalfield and various appurtenant lards. (fn. 125) This estate was then held of Lady Sharington, and in 1610–11 when the inquisition on Christopher's death was made, it was held of Sir Anthony Mildmay and Grace his wife as of the manor of Woodrow (in Melksham, q.v.). Christopher left a relict, Joan, who enjoyed all the issues of the estate for six years after his death, and thereafter ⅓ of the issues up to the time of the inquisition. Christopher's heir was his son John. The estate apparently remained in the Moxham family until the end of the 18th century, if not later. In 1692–3 a messuage, 40 acres arable, 5 acres meadow, and 5 acres pasture in Moxhams and Great Chalfield were the subject of a conveyance by Christopher Moxham and Anne his wife and James Moxham and Thomasine his wife. (fn. 126) In 1720 it was deposed that the parish of Great Chalfield consisted of three estates: Great Chalfield Farm, Farmer Moxham's estate, and Bowood, all of which owed tithes. (fn. 127) In the following year James Moxham, Christopher Moxham, and Susan his wife conveyed the estate to John Moxham. (fn. 128) James Moxham, described as a sugar refiner of London, held Moxham's farm in 1783. (fn. 129)

In and before 1302 Robert de Lyntonesford held lands in Great Chalfield, by exchange with William de Percy, and by conveyance of Mary Lunewode and John de la Ford. (fn. 130) Robert de Lyntonesford in 1302 conveyed to Walter Selyman and Edith his wife part of the above lands. (fn. 131) John de Lyntonesford about this time gave all his land in 'Lyntesforde juxta Chaldefeld Percy' to Walter and Edith Selyman. (fn. 132) Thus apparently was created the estate now known as LENTON FARM due north of Great Chalfield. In 1385 land in Lynsford, West Chalfield, and East Chalfield, probably but not certainly the same estate as the foregoing, (fn. 133) was leased by John, son and heir of John Aunger, to Constance FitzWaryn of Great Chalfield for the term of her life. (fn. 134) In the same year John granted the reversion of the property to John Grenyng of Holt, to whom this was confirmed by John Aunger in 1405 and by Constance in 1410. (fn. 135) John Grenyng and his wife Joan were in possession of the estate in 1426. (fn. 136) In 1433 Grenyng conveyed it to William Rous, lord of Great Chalfield, with which manor it descended thereafter. (fn. 137) In 1726 the Duke of Kingston let the farm, then alternatively called The Dairy, together with some pastures to Thomas Miles for seven years at £115 a year. (fn. 138) From 1755 Lenton or Dairy Farm with two closes were let to Henry Miles for fourteen years at the same rent. (fn. 139)

Much valuable information about the manors in this parish is to be found in the Tropenell cartulary, a rubricated parchment volume kept in Great Chalfield house. (fn. 140)

Churches

The advowson of the church of Great Chalfield has always been annexed to the manor. The first recorded institutions took place in 1316, when it was called a chapel. (fn. 141) In 1913 it was transferred by the late Mr. G. P. Fuller to his son Major R. F- Fuller, who is still the patron. (fn. 142) It was called a church for the first time in 1349, and thereafter continues to be so called. (fn. 143) In 1428 it was one of the churches exempted from taxation as having fewer than 10 parishioners. (fn. 144) The rectory was valued at £5. 17s. in 1535. (fn. 145)

In a terrier of 1671 it was stated that there was no house belonging to the parsonage, and that the minister occupied a chamber in the manor house. It was added that 'antiant men have reported that they have heard from other antiant men that were before them, that said there was a parsonage house which stood on a ground near the manor house, called Parsonage Close, alias Penclose'. (fn. 146) There were no glebe lands at that time, though upon the report of old men long since dead there had been such. It seems probable that the oral tradition connecting Parsonage Close with the church of Great Chalfield was false, and that the close had actually belonged to the chapel of Little Chalfield (see below). The jurors of 1671 also reported that Mr. Bradshaw, the previous incumbent, had had his diet, the keeping of a horse, and £16 per annum out of the manor of Great Chalfield in lieu of tithes. (fn. 147) They said that the then rector (John Wilton) had received an annual composition of £32 from the owners of the manor in lieu of tithes, together with the keeping of a horse. The rector also had £5 a year in tithes from Moxhams Farm and 10s. from 'a ground lying within the same parish called Bowood'. (fn. 148) In 1705 the tithe amounted to slightly less: £32 from the tenant of the manor (John Sartain, holding of John Hall) and £4 from Christopher Moxham. (fn. 149) In 1731 the tithe arising from the manor was compounded at £36. (fn. 150) In 1783 the rector received in composition for his tithes £50 from the manor, £3. 10s. from lands belonging to John Blagden of Gray's Inn, and in the occupation of John Reynolds, and 19s. from Bowood field. He also had tithe of hay, wool, and lambs for lands belonging to James Moxham of London, sugar refiner. The rectory had been augmented by £200 from Queen Anne's Bounty and £200 from the late Robert Neale of Corsham, producing in all £8 a year interest. (fn. 151)

Christopher Tropenell (d. 1503) left to the church of Great Chalfield 'a pair of vestments, a chaleys, a masboke, a portes, a procescyonall, a suplus and awterclothes there to belonging'. (fn. 152)

In the 14th and 15th centuries Little Chalfield was a separate parish, although like Great Chalfield a small and poor one. The 'chapel of Chalfield' to which Walter de Chaudefeld presented in 1308 must have been the manorial chapel of Little Chalfield, and in 1362 at the next recorded institution it was styled a church. (fn. 153) In 1348 Margaret, relict of George de Percy, was licensed to alienate in mortmain 33½ acres mead and 5s. rent in Little Chalfield to a chaplain who was to celebrate daily in the chapel of St. John the Baptist, Little Chalfield, for her good estate, for her soul when she was dead, and for the soul of her late husband. (fn. 154) In 1418 Little Chalfield (like Great Chalfield) was a parish whose church was exempt from tax because it had fewer than 10 inhabitants. (fn. 155) The advowson of Little Chalfield descended with the manor. The last recorded institution was made in 1537 by William Button by grant of Hawise (Avyse) de Westbury, widow. (fn. 156) This and the previous two institutions were to a 'chapel', and it is clear that by this time Little Chalfield had hardly any inhabitants. (fn. 157) That the church had ceased to fulfil parochial functions is clear from the fact that it came within the purview of the Chantry Survey of 1549. In that year it was described as 'a free chapel', ½ mile distant from the parish church, and it was found that the profits arising from the tithes from the farm of the manor had been demised to William Westbury (lord of the manor) by the incumbent of the chapel, William Thynne. (fn. 158) According to another chantry certificate of the same year the chapel of Chalfield was valued at 40s., and was said to be in the possession of (Sir) John Thynne by letters patent of the king. (fn. 159) John Thynne (not William) was the name of the incumbent instituted in 1537. (fn. 160) As mentioned above the advowson of the chapel had been allotted to Avyse Westbury as her share of the property of her father John Savery. The demise of the tithes to Avyse's son William Westbury was possibly accompanied, or was certainly followed by the acquisition by the lord of the manor of the glebe land belonging to the chapel. In 1614 the free chapel of West Chalfield and all tithes and glebe were apurtenant to the manor. (fn. 161) In 1630 the manor included the free chapel, tithes, and a close called Parsonage Close pertaining to the chapel. (fn. 162) The chapel is mentioned in conveyances of the manor up to 1701. (fn. 163) There is now no trace of it.

In 1545 Thomas Bamfield, husband of Anne, the other daughter and coheir of John Savery, conveyed to Thomas Horton the advowson of the free chapel of St. Blaise, Chalfield. (fn. 164) No other mention of this chapel has been found but it is possible that it was identical with the chantry set up in 1348 (see above).

In 1656 an order was approved to sever the chapel of Holt from the parish of Bradford and to unite with it the parishes of Great and Little Chalfield and Staverton. (fn. 165) At the same time it was proposed to unite the chapels of Atworth and Wrazall in Bradford with the parishes of Monkton Farleigh, Cottles' House, and Moxham's House. (fn. 166) The Restoration put an end to this and other projected reforms of local administration, and to the present day the ecclesiastical parish of Great Chalfield has remained the same, although the small value of the rectory and the absence of a glebe house have meant that there has been no resident rector at Great Chalfield for many years. (fn. 167)

The chapel of Little Chalfield had probably been pulled down before the church terrier of Great Chalfield was drawn up in 1674, for it must have been mentioned in the terrier had it survived. So completely had the memory of it disappeared that in the censuses of the early 19th century Little Chalfield and Cottles (see under Bradford) were classed as extra-parochial. (fn. 168)

The church of ALL SAINTS, Great Chalfield, is small, consisting of chancel, nave, south chapel, vestry, and west porch. It dates from the early 14th century, when it consisted only of chancel and nave. Of the original building only part of the nave remains. The chancel was rebuilt about 1480, no doubt by Thomas Tropenell. At the same time the west end porch, bell-cote, and south chapel were built. The eastward extension of the south chapel, flanking the chancel and now used as a vestry, was added in 1775 by Robert Neale, (fn. 169) and at the same time the chancel was lined with ashlar and reroofed. The bell-cote has two-light traceried openings on each face and is crowned by a short crocketed octagonal spire. There are traces of painting on the splays of the north window, and in the walls of the chapel traces of six panels representing the life of St. Katherine. There is a description of these written in 1760 before they were disfigured and whitewashed over. The screen to the vestry is probably late 15th century and is said to have been brought from Goodnestone (Kent). The oak panelled pulpit dates from the late 17th century. The oak chancel screen, the seating, and the organ case, which is richly painted and gilded in medieval style, are modern.

No plate was entered for Great Chalfield in the returns of 1553. A chalice and paten cover (both hallmarked 1680) were presented by John Hall of Bradford (d. 1711). (fn. 170) An alms dish was purchased in 1922 with money subscribed by the parishioners. (fn. 171)

A book recording births and deaths in the Eyre family from 1545 is kept in the manor house from 1605 to 1812 it continues as a parish register. Complete registers from 1813 are kept in the parish chest at the church. (fn. 172)

There were two bells in the church in 1553. The present single bell was cast in 1627. (fn. 173)

Nonconformity

There are no Nonconformist chapels at Great Chalfield, nor is there any indication that there ever have been. John Eyre in a letter dated at West Chalfield in 1670 complained of the activities of sectaries in his area, (fn. 174) but no Nonconformists were returned for the parish of Great Chalfield in 1676. (fn. 175)

Agriculture and Mills

For February and March 1322 there is an account of the profits of Great Chalfield, then in the king's hand owing to the rebellion of Roger de Percy. In these weeks a foal, 4 bullocks, 30 two-year-old sheep (hogastri), 12 pigs, 7 piglets, 2 qr. of wheat, 5 qr. of barley, and 10 qr. of oats were sold, and 30 acres sown with wheat and one with oats. The price of an acre of wheat was 3s. and of oats 1s. 10d. (fn. 176)

In the Domesday entry for the manor of Chalfield which had formerly belonged to Wallef it is stated that there was half a mill there worth 18d. (fn. 177) Probably the two Chalfields shared a mill lying on the stream which runs through them. The mill was again mentioned in 1280–1 when there was a dispute concerning it between the lords of Great and Little Chalfield. Walter de Chaudefeld, lord of Little Chalfield, complained that William de Percy had made a pond which caused the site of Walter's mill to be flooded and also rendered impassable a pathway by which Walter was accustomed to carry hay from a meadow near the pond. The jurors found that both litigants were in the wrong, for although the pathway was submerged it was not impassable, nor was the mill flooded. (fn. 178) A miller of Chalfield is mentioned in 1439 (fn. 179) and 1501–2 (fn. 180). A corn mill was in use at Great Chalfield while the Parliamentary garrison was in occupation in 1645. (fn. 181) In a plan of the manor house and its environs made in 1834 a corn mill is marked to the east of the house. By 1900 this mill had been replaced by cottages. (fn. 182)


GREAT CHALFIELD MANOR, WILTSHIRE

Great Chalfield Manor on a sunny day in June has that peace, beauty and sense of history one rejoices to find on a trip into the English countryside. The property is owned by the National Trust. It does not have the customary National Trust tea-room but in the barn there is self-service provision for drinks. The house was rebuilt by Thomas Tropnell between 1465 and 1480. There is a central great hall which from the beginning had a chimney. Across the screens passage there was not the traditional buttery, pantry and kitchen but parlour or Dining Room. Tropnell added the gabled ends with the oriel windows.

The property passed to Thomas Tropnell's great-granddaughter Ann who married John Eyre in 1550. During the time the house was owned by this family, it was occupied by Parliamentary forces from 1644-1646. Thereafter there were a number of absentee landlords and the house fell into disrepair. However, in 1836 it was recorded in detail by Thomas Larkin Walker, a pupil of August Pugin. In 1838 the East Wing was pulled down. Walker's drawings were invaluable for the restoration carried out between 1905 and 1912 by Sir Harold Brakspear for Robert Fuller who had purchased the house from his father, G. P. Fuller of Neston Park. In 1943, Robert Fuller gave the house and grounds together with an endowment to the National Trust.

All Saints'

There was a chapel on this site from 1316 and records of a church from 1349. Thomas Tropnell modified the church with the addition of octagonal spire and bellcote, the porch and the Tropnell chapel with its screen. In about 1680, John Hall of Bradford on Avon gave the pulpit. Repairs were made in 1719 when a buttress was added against the north wall. The roof and chancel were restored and the floor relaid in 1765. The Neale family added the small chapel south of the chancel and east of the Tropnell Chapel in 1775 it is now used as the vestry. Further restoration took place in 1912-22, supported by Robert and Mabel Fuller, based on architectural drawings made by Thomas Larkin Walker in 1832. At this time a new screen and reredos were installed. Box pews from the 18th century were removed and their panels used on the walls of the nave. The choir stalls were also repaired. In 1964, the spire was repaired and the roofs of the nave, chancel and Tropnell chapel have been retiled.

The Tropnell Chapel screen bears five coats of arms for families that the Tropnells married into. From left to right they are Percy, Rous, Tropnell (shown in the my photograph), Tropnell impaling Ludlow of Hill Deverill and the fifth is for Roche. The stained glass was made in 1999 by Andrew Taylor. It shows the parable of the sower. A inscrição diz:

This window is given by the family and friends of Mary Elizabeth (1916-1996) Patrona and Churchwarden of this parish, Widow of John Boyle (d. 1944) and of Charles Floyd (d. 1971) and only child of Robert and Mabel Fuller, who restored this church and Manor. Thanks be to God.

Fontes:

Pamphlet available in the church.
Great Chalfield Manor, National Trust booklet, 2004

Celebrating England e cópia Craig Thornber, Cheshire, Inglaterra, Reino Unido. Endereço do site principal: https://www.thornber.net/

Rigoroso


Great Chalfield Manor: a delightful medieval house in the tranquil Wiltshire countryside

Great Chalfield Manor is a charming medieval house surrounded by a beautiful Arts and Crafts garden, near Bradford-on-Avon, in Wiltshire, England.

The well-preserved house is of historical importance and has been used many times as a filming location, such as in the screen adaptations of The Other Boleyn Girl, starring Scarlett Johansson and Natalie Portman, Elizabeth Gaskell’s Wives And Daughters, and in the BBC’s adaptation of Hilary Mantel’s award-winning Wolf Hall, as Thomas Cromwell’s house.

The manor was built around 1470 for Thomas Tropenell, a lawyer who made his fortune by remodelling himself as a cloth merchant, but it is not known how much time he spent there since he was a wealthy owner and had other properties.

The design is characteristic of the late medieval period, based around a hall with a courtyard, with large oriel windows and gabled porches. Its symmetrical exterior was however uncommon in that period.

In 1550, Tropenell’s great-granddaughter married John Eyre. The property remained largely unaltered by several generations of the Eyre family who resided there. During the English Civil War it was occupied by a Parliamentary garrison.

Later owners did make substantial modifications and adaptations, most notably the Great Hall was converted into a farmhouse. By the late 19th century, the manor had fallen into despair.

Great Chalfield: the externally symmetrical entrance front. Trish Steel. CC BY-SA 2.0

It was revived when local businessman Robert Fuller bought the manor and, with the help of architect Harold Brakspear, began the process of restoration and rebuilding.

Between 1905 and 1912, the original medieval-style structure was so harmonically connected to the trendy Edwardian style of that period, that today it is hard to distinguish them.

Great Chalfield: the less formal southern aspect. Neosnaps. CC BY 2.0

In 1943, the manor was granted to the National Trust, but a descendant of Robert Fuller and his family continue to live here.

The manor is built of rubble stone and has a stone slate roof. At the heart of the house is the two-story-high Great Hall. Although it looks medieval, it is actually an Edwardian addition, built as a replica of the original.

The grotesque carvings on the walls were not just part of the decoration, but also served as a spying tool. They have peepholes that allowed the members of the family constant supervision of the hall from their private quarters.

Oriel window. Red Skelington. CC BY 2.0

On the cornice of the Great Hall’s ceiling, Tropenell had inscribed Le jong tyra belement – ‘the yoke pulls well’ – perhaps recalling his work as a steward for the Lord of Hungerford, whose lands were given to Tropenell after the Lord’s execution for supporting the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses.

Great Chalfield Manor. HARTLEPOOLMARINA2014. CC BY-SA 4.0

With its decorations, carvings, and remarkable 17th century Antwerp tapestry, the Great Hall is one of the most astonishing rooms in the house.

The solar wing, as well as the minstrel gallery, were also added during the Edwardian period. A portrait that is believed to be of Tropnell himself hangs in the dining room.

Great Chalfield Manor. Red Skelington. CC BY 2.0

Alongside the manor, there is a small parish church dating back to the 14th century, a large gatehouse, and a barn.

Tropnell expanded the church, adding a chapel, whose painted walls tell the story of St. Catherine of Alexandria, patron saint of lawyers. The fragmentary remains of the paintings are still visible in the church.

All Saints Church from Great Chalfield Manor. Nessy-Pic. CC BY-SA 3.0

Great Chalfield Manor is situated in one of the most picturesque areas of the English countryside. Its gardens were designed between 1907 and 1911, according to the principles of the Arts and Crafts movement.

The English painter Alfred Parsons and his business partner Captain Partridge were responsible for creating the seven acres of gardens.

Great Chalfield Gardens. Red Skelington. CC BY 2.0

Upper and lower moats were added, as well as an orchard and unusual yew topiary pavilions. The new owners improved the gardens using plants in colors in accordance with to Parsons’ ideas for the garden.

The garden has a romantic atmosphere and very colorful borders and rose beds, from old varieties of Narcissi, and ‘Queen of the Night’ Tulips, to rose varieties such as Rambling Rector and Sanders White.

Great Chalfield Manor Dahlia border. HARTLEPOOLMARINA2014. CC BY-SA 4.0

To the south-west of the country house is the kitchen garden, where vegetables are still grown for the needs of the household.

Great Chalfield is one of England’s most beautiful medieval houses, listed Grade I. The traditional manor in the tranquil Wiltshire countryside is a perfect example of an English idyll.


Great Chalfield Manor and Garden is a lovely medieval manor and garden located in rural Wiltshire. It is managed by the National Trust and is a short journey from Bradford on Avon.

História

The house was built for Thomas Tropenell (also Tropnell) between 1465 and 1480. He had made his money as a cloth merchant and became an avid purchaser of lands and estates. It was to pass through various owners including a duke and a Lord Mayor of London until it was finally given to the National Trust in 1943.

The interior of the house can be seen only by guided tour (Tuesday to Thursday and Sunday from 1st April to 31st October). It features oriel windows, tapestries, Tropenell’s Cartulary (a record of property acquisitions, deeds, and legal documents), as well as stone masks built into the walls where one can spy on those below.

The Manor House at Great Chalfield, a delightful National Trust managed property in Wiltshire

Garden

The garden (also open Tuesday to Thursday and Sunday from 1st April to 31st October) was designed by Alfred Parsons (1847-1920) and features terraces, a gazebo, roses, and an attractive spring-fed fish pond.

The house and grounds have been used as locations for various films and TV dramas. Esses incluem Wives and Daughters in 1999, The Other Boleyn Girl, Tess of the d’Urbervilles, Wolf Hall e Poldark.

Two views of the Manor House in rural Wiltshire near Bradford on Avon

Access – Getting There

Great Chalfield Manor and Garden
near Melksham, Wiltshire
SN12 8NH
Tel: 01225 782239

The house and garden are a short drive east of both Bath and Bradford on Avon on the B3107 road. The house is only 4 km northeast of Bradford on Avon and 16 km (10 miles) from Bath.

Book a hire car for your holiday in Britain - pick up at the airport or in the major cities


Great Chalfield Manor

In the civil parish of Atworth.
In the historic county of Wiltshire.
Modern Authority of Wiltshire.
1974 county of Wiltshire.
Medieval County of Wiltshire.

OS Map Grid Reference: ST86026318
Latitude 51.36760° Longitude -2.20233°

Great Chalfield Manor has been described as a probable Fortified Manor House.

There are masonry footings remains.

This is a Grade 2 listed building protected by law*.

Great Chalfield Manor House was built by Thomas Tropenell in c. 1480, on the site of a ruined fortified house. Of the earlier building all that remains are the bases of the east and north curtain walls, the lower part of a circular tower at the north-east angle, and traces of a half round tower to the west near the bridge. Within the curtain at the north-east corner is the parish church of Great Chalfield. Tropenell's house was considerably altered about 1550 among the alterations was probably that of the long west wing for use as stables and servants' quarters. By 1837 a quadrangle of domestic offices had disappeared and other parts were in ruins, and in 1840 the building was adapted as a farmhouse. Between 1905 and 1912 the house was thoroughly restored under the supervision of (Sir) Harold Brakspear. The work included the rebuilding of the solar, the reconstruction of a 16th-century stone chimney-piece from original fragments recovered from a rockery, and the insertion of a staircase in the east wing. The principal front and entrance are on the north and are approached by a bridge over a moat and by a gateway at the northern end of the west wing. The front remains much as it originally was, with the hall in the centre, two projecting gabled wings with oriel windows, and, on the inner side of each, lesser gables, the western forming the porch. The south front, which originally had a southward extension, has been partly reconstructed to the original pattern, including a timber-framed portion on the west. On the apexes of the gables are carved the figures of armed knights. Inside the house are many 15th- and 16th-century features, including the original main timbers of the hall bearing the Tropenell motto, stone groined ceilings with the Tropenell arms, and panelling, chimney-pieces and decorated plaster-work dating from the mid-16th century. (In 1837 plans were made by Sir Harry Burrard Neale for the restoration of Chalfield manor. T. L. Walker, a pupil of A. C. Pugin, made elaborate drawings and descriptions of the house which were later used by Sir Harold Brakspear in his restoration work. For these and other details see R. F. Fuller, Guide to Great Chalfield Manor, published by the National Trust.) (VCH 1953)

Site of an earlier fortified house of a branch of the Percy family.

Links to archaeological and architectural databases, mapping and other online resources


The London Reviewer

Historic place review: Great Chalfield Manor (National Trust)
near Melksham, Wiltshire, SN12 8NH
Great Chalfield Manor – map
Telefone: 01225 782239
O email: [email protected]
OS Grid Ref: 173:ST860631
Review by: Alexa Williamson
Avaliação: ***** (out of 5)

From Wikipedia about Great Chalfield Manor (abridged): “Great Chalfield Manor is an English country house at Great Chalfield, near Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire. The house is a moated manor house built around 1465–1480 for Thomas Tropenell, a modest member of the landed gentry who made a fortune as a clothier.”

Análise: I had so much fun here and learned so much! Great Chalfield Manor is indeed off the beaten track. It is nestled in the Wiltshire countryside and you really need a car to get here! However, it is indeed worth your time, money and effort to come! This is one of the few medieval manor moat houses I have been too (Ightham Moat, also owned by the National Trust, in Kent, is another) – and I indeed could feel its age.

So, after you arrive in the middle of nowhere, parking is easy and then you enter into lovely gardens! The gardens here are well taken care of and not huge, but rambling with roses in a nice way! You can have a nice stroll before you go on a guided tour of the house.

It is essential you call about the tour first as numbers are limited and you cannot book in advance, but at least you can see how many people are expected that day. The property is tenanted so there are only about 5 rooms on show. But, they are so sweet and filled with old wood furniture, tapestries and other things that make the house feel medieval. Quite a few tv shows have been filmed here too as it is so quaint.

Everything is very relaxed, there are horses on the property that are cute and there is a help-your-self kitchen where you can take a cup of tea and a biscuit and leave money on the honour system. The staff are very kind, knowledgeable, friendly and patient. Everyone here loves their jobs and they love the house. You can tell that Great Chalfield is run well, well looked after and much loved. A delightful day out! So glad I came!


Assista o vídeo: Virtual tour of Harlaxton Manor