Os óculos de Buddy Holly, perdidos desde sua morte em 1959, foram encontrados em Mason City, Iowa

Os óculos de Buddy Holly, perdidos desde sua morte em 1959, foram encontrados em Mason City, Iowa

Quando o Beechcraft Bonanza carregando Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens e o Big Bopper caiu fora de Clear Lake, Iowa, na madrugada de 3 de fevereiro de 1959, atingiu o solo com tanta força que todos os três passageiros morreram instantaneamente, e o avião destroços foram espalhados por quase 300 metros de campos de milho cobertos de neve. A certidão de óbito emitida pelo Coroner do condado de Cerro Gordo mencionava as roupas que Holly estava vestindo, a presença de uma mala de couro perto de seu corpo e os seguintes objetos pessoais:

Charles Holley

Em dinheiro $ 193,00 menos $ 11,65 honorários do médico legista - $ 181,35

2 abotoaduras, bolas de prata de 1/2 pol. Com pulseira de joias

Parte superior da caneta esferográfica

Notavelmente faltando na lista estavam os óculos de Holly, o legado visual mais distinto de um homem que influenciou o som e o estilo do rock and roll incomensuravelmente. Esses óculos famosos foram considerados perdidos para sempre até o anúncio, em 29 de fevereiro de 1980, de que eles ressurgiram em Mason City, Iowa.

Os óculos em questão tinham a aparência de algo emitido pelo governo, mas foram, na verdade, cuidadosamente escolhidos como parte da imagem de Holly - não pelo próprio Holly, mas por seu optometrista em Lubbock, Texas, Dr. J. Davis Armistead. “Buddy estava tentando usar as armações menos visíveis que pudesse encontrar”, escreveu o Dr. Armistead quase 40 anos após escrever a última receita de Holly. “Pessoalmente, não estava feliz com os estilos de moldura que estávamos usando. Eu não acho que eles contribuíram em nada para uma personalidade distinta que um artista precisa. ” Foi durante as férias na Cidade do México que Armistead encontrou exatamente as molduras que achava que Holly precisava. Ele trouxe de volta dois pares de armações Faiosa de plástico pesado. “Aquelas armações pretas pesadas alcançam exatamente o que queríamos - elas se tornaram uma parte distinta dele.” Na verdade, eles se tornaram parte da iconografia básica e do espírito do rock and roll. Antes de Buddy Holly, teria sido impossível imaginar um garoto magricela de joelhos tortos em um terno da Ivy League e óculos grossos e pesados ​​sendo considerado "legal". Depois de Buddy Holly, o visual e a atitude que mais tarde seriam chamados de “geek chic” se tornaram um estilo alternativo completamente aceito para um aspirante a astro do rock abraçar.

Então, como os famosos óculos ressurgiram? Na violência do acidente em fevereiro de 1959, eles foram jogados para longe dos outros destroços e enterrados na neve. Eles foram encontrados, junto com o relógio do Big Bopper, na mesma primavera, quando a neve derretida os tornou visíveis novamente. Embora tenham sido entregues imediatamente ao escritório do xerife do condado de Cerro Gordo, eles permaneceram arquivados pelos próximos 21 anos em um envelope de papel manilha lacrado marcado "registrado em 7 de abril de 1959." Esse envelope foi aberto pelo xerife Jerry Allen neste dia em 1980. Os óculos foram eventualmente devolvidos à viúva de Holly.


Buddy Holly brilles, kas pazaudētas kopš viņa nāves 1959. gadā, ir atrodamas Mason City, Iowa

Kad Beechcraft Bonanza, ka pārvadāja Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valen un Big Bopper, 1959. gada 3. februāra agrā rīta tundā ietriecā ārpu Clear Lake, Iowa, ta notrieca zemi ar tādu pēku, ka vii trī paažieri


Obsah:

Když Beechcraft Bonanza nesouc & # 237 Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens a Big Bopper narazili před Clear Lake v Iowě, v časn & # 253ch rann & # 237ch hodin & # 225ch 3. & # 250nora 1959, zas & # 225hla zemi tažakovit por silabiti tři cestuj & # 237c & # 237 a letadlo trosky byly rozh & # 225zen & # 233 přes t & # 233měř 300 yardů zasněžen & # 253ch kukuřičn & # 253ch pol & # 237. V & # 250mrtn & # 237m listu, kter & # 253 vydal kraj Corroer v okrese Cerro Gordo, bylo uvedeno, že Holly měla na sobě oblečen & # 237, kožen & # 253 kufr pobl & # 237 jeho těla a n & # 225scled & # 237cled & # 237scled & # 237cledn & # 237cle 237 věci:

Hotovost 193,00 $ sn & ​​# 237žen & # 225 o 11,65 $ koronersk & # 233 poplatky - 181,35 $

2 manžetov & # 233 knofl & # 237ky, stř & # 237bro 1/2 palce

Ze seznamu zvl & # 225ště chyběly Hollyovy podpisov & # 233 br & # 253le, nejv & # 253raznějš & # 237 vizu & # 225ln & # 237 odkaz muže, kter & # 253 ovlivnil zvuk a styl rock and roll nesm. Předpokl & # 225dalo se, že tyto slavn & # 233 br & # 253le byly navždy ztraceny až do ozn & # 225men & # 237 29. & # 250nora 1980, že se znovu objevily v Mason City v Iowě.

Dotyčn & # 233 br & # 253le měly vzhled něčeho, co vl & # 225da vydala, ale ve skutečnosti byli pečlivě vybr & # 225ni jako souč & # 225st Hollyho obrazu samotn & # 253 Holly, aleho jeho Lubbock, Texas. & quotBuddy se snažil nosit nejm & # 233ně n & # 225padn & # 233 r & # 225my, kter & # 233 dok & # 225zal naj & # 237t, & quot napsal dr. Armistead t & # 233měř 40 let po cochilos & # 225n & # 237 Hollyho posledn & # 237ho předpisu. & quotOsobně jsem nebyl spokojen s r & # 225mov & # 253mi styly, kter & # 233 jsme použ & # 237vali. & quot Nemyslel jsem si, že por něco přispěli k v & # 253razn & # 233 osobnosti performer. “Pr & # 225vě na dovolen & # 233 v Cidade do México našel Armistead přesně ty r & # 225my, kter & # 233 podle něj Holly potřebovala. Přinesl zpět dva p & # 225ry těžk & # 253ch plastov & # 253ch r & # 225mů Faiosa. & quotTyto těžk & # 233 čern & # 233 r & # 225mečky dosahuj & # 237 přesně toho, co jsme chtěli, aby se z něj stala jeho samostatn & # 225 souč & # 225st. & quot Ve skutečnosti se stalik # 225 & # 237 ducha rock and roll. Před Buddy Holly por bylo nemožn & # 233 si představit huben & # 233, zaklepan & # 233 d & # 237tě v obleku Ivy League a siln & # 233, těžk & # 233 br & # 253le považovan & # 233 za „cool“. Po Buddy Holly, vzhled a postoj, kter & # 253 por se později naz & # 253val „geek chic“ “Se stal naprosto přij & # 237man & # 253m alternativn & # 237m stylem pro aspiruj & # 237c & # 237 rockovou hvězdu.

Jak se tedy objevily slavn & # 233 br & # 253le? Při n & # 225siln & # 233m p & # 225du v & # 250noru 1959 byli vyhazov & # 225ni z jin & # 253ch vraků a pohřbeni ve sněhu. Našli se spolu s hodinkami Big Bopperu toho sam & # 233ho jara, když je znovu rozplynul taj & # 237c & # 237 sn & ​​# 237h. Přestože byli okamžitě před & # 225ni do kancel & # 225ře šerifa hrabstv & # 237 Cerro Gordo, posadili se na dalš & # 237ch 21 let fazer zapečetěn & # 233 manilsk & # 233 ob & # 225lky označen & # 225lky označen & # 233. otevřel tento den šerif Jerry Allen v roce 1980. Br & # 253le byly nakonec vr & # 225ceny Holly vdově a nyn & # 237 je vidět na v & # 253stavě v Buddy Holly Center v Lubbocku v Texasu.


De volta 1959, "The Day The Music Died", quando três músicos: Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens e o Big Bopper morreram em um acidente de avião nos arredores de Clear Lake, Iowa. O investigador havia obtido todos os efeitos dos destroços do avião, no entanto, os famosos óculos de aro grosso de Buddy Holly não foram encontrados - isto é, até 1980.

History.com afirmou que, "Os óculos em questão tinham a aparência de algo emitido pelo governo, mas foram, na verdade, cuidadosamente escolhidos como parte da imagem de Holly - não por Holly em pessoa, mas por seu optometrista em Lubbock, Texas, Dr. J. Davis Armistead. “Buddy estava tentando usar as armações menos conspícuas que pudesse encontrar”, escreveu o Dr. Armistead quase 40 anos após escrever a última prescrição de Holly. “Pessoalmente, eu não estava feliz com os estilos de armações que estávamos usando. Eu não acho que eles contribuíram em nada para uma personalidade distinta que um artista precisa. "Foi durante as férias na Cidade do México que Armistead encontrou exatamente as armações de que achou que Holly precisava. Ele trouxe de volta dois pares das armações Faiosa de plástico pesado." Essas pesadas molduras pretas alcançam exatamente o que queríamos - elas se tornaram uma parte distinta dele. "Na verdade, elas se tornaram parte da iconografia básica e do espírito do rock and roll. Antes de Buddy Holly, seria impossível imaginar um magricela , garoto que precisa bater em um terno da Ivy League e óculos grossos e pesados ​​sendo considerado "legal". Depois de Buddy Holly, o visual e a atitude que mais tarde seriam chamados de "geek chic" tornaram-se um estilo alternativo completamente aceito para um aspirante a astro do rock abraçar."

Os óculos ressurgiram junto com o relógio do Big Bopper na primavera após a queda do avião após o derretimento da neve. Eles foram entregues prontamente ao escritório de um xerife do condado de Cerro Gordo em um envelope lacrado, etiquetado, "rec. 7 de abril de 1959."

De acordo com history.com, "aquele envelope foi aberto pelo xerife Jerry Allen neste dia em 1980. Os óculos foram eventualmente devolvidos à viúva de Holly e agora podem ser vistos na exposição no Buddy Holly Center em Lubbock, Texas."

O Senhor dos Anéis: O Retorno do Rei, de Peter Jackson, ganha 11 Oscars

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History.com afirmou que, "Talvez o artista mais chamativo e pioneiro do cinema em 2003 não tenha recebido uma indicação ao Oscar de Melhor Ator - mas foi homenageado mesmo assim. A qualidade assustadoramente realista de Gollum, a imagem gerada por computador ( CG) criatura que sorriu e planejou seu caminho através da trilogia de filmes O Senhor dos Anéis, permaneceu um dos aspectos mais inspiradores da última parcela da trilogia, O Retorno do Rei. Na cerimônia do 76º Oscar, realizada neste dia em 2004, o filme ganhou um recorde de 11 Oscars, incluindo Melhor Filme, Melhor Diretor (Peter Jackson) e Melhores Efeitos Visuais. "

De acordo com o boxofficemojo, este filme é o 5º filme de maior bilheteria de todos os tempos.


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Puxa vida: por que Buddy Holly ainda é importante hoje

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Puxa vida: por que Buddy Holly ainda é importante hoje

1/4 Oh, cara: Por que Buddy Holly ainda é importante hoje

Puxa vida: por que Buddy Holly ainda é importante hoje

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Arquivo Hulton / Imagens Getty

Puxa vida: por que Buddy Holly ainda é importante hoje

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Arquivo Hulton / Imagens Getty

Puxa vida: por que Buddy Holly ainda é importante hoje

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Puxa vida: por que Buddy Holly ainda é importante hoje

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No Dia dos Namorados em 1959, apenas 11 dias após o acidente aéreo que matou seu filho, Ella Holley escreveu às famílias dos outros artistas que haviam morrido, o Big Bopper e Ritchie Valens. São cartas lindamente compostas, expressando sua perplexidade e tristeza, e revelam sua convicção de que se reunirão no céu.

No entanto, o que torna a correspondência extraordinária é que ela escreveu uma carta semelhante à viúva do piloto, Roger Peterson. Ela não culpou, embora o acidente tenha ocorrido em grande parte devido à inexperiência dele, e ela disse: "Estamos arrasados ​​por esta terrível tragédia e pela perda de nosso filho, e sabemos que você está sofrendo o mesmo. Nunca tínhamos conhecido antes a tristeza e o sofrimento pela morte de um ente querido, mas sabemos agora, e nossos corações estão com você porque sabemos o que você está passando. Vamos mantê-lo em nossas orações. "

Cinquenta anos depois, esta carta indica como Buddy Holly foi criado e como seus pais moldaram sua personalidade. Costuma-se dizer que o rock'n'roll era a música da rebelião, uma resposta ao estilo de vida convencional e monótono da geração anterior. Não há nada disso na história de Buddy Holly: seus pais o apoiaram até o fim e ele, por sua vez, os amou.

Na década de 1930, Lawrence e Ella Holley se estabeleceram em Lubbock, Texas. Quando seu quarto e último filho, Charles Hardin, chegou em 7 de setembro de 1936, Lawrence ganhava US $ 12 por semana como alfaiate. A casa deles era um par de cômodos sem eletricidade ou telefone. Ella considerava Charles Hardin Holley um grande nome para um menino e o apelidou de Buddy, o nome perfeito e amigável para ele.

Lubbock, na fivela do Cinturão da Bíblia, fica no Texas Panhandle, uma região enorme e isolada com planícies vastas e inexpressivas. É no meio do nada, sem nada para ver quando você chega lá, e tão plano que você se pergunta o que os instrutores de direção fazem para começar uma colina. Na época estava seco, embora houvesse clubes de bebida fora dos limites da cidade. Joe Ely, que se estabeleceu como cantor / compositor no final dos anos 1970, lembra: "Lubbock é uma cidade grande no meio de um campo de algodão. Há muitas pessoas morando lá, mas é como uma cidade pequena porque é muito espalhada . As coisas principais são apenas algodão e tédio. Passei a maior parte do meu tempo no colégio pensando em como sair. Lubbock é uma área musicalmente criativa, e talvez seja porque não há mais nada a fazer. "

Quando Buddy e sua primeira namorada, Echo McGuire, estavam na Igreja Batista do Tabernáculo, o pregador disse: "O que você faria se tivesse $ 10?" e Buddy murmurou: "Se eu tivesse $ 10, não estaria aqui."

Se Buddy tivesse ficado, ele estaria no negócio de ladrilhos da família com seus irmãos, Larry e Travis. Eles lhe mostraram os rudimentos da guitarra, e uma gravação caseira de "My Two-Timin 'Woman", de 1949, mostra que ele já era proficiente, embora sua voz ainda não tivesse se quebrado.

Buddy tocou bluegrass na estação de rádio KDAV, geralmente com seu amigo Bob Montgomery. Várias gravações sobreviveram e se assemelham a um adolescente Flatt e Scruggs. Eles tocaram na pista de patinação e nas promoções da estação, abrindo para Elvis Presley em 1955. Sonny Curtis comenta: "Era o grupo de Buddy e Bob, e eu tocava violino. Tocávamos música country, mas quando Elvis apareceu, Buddy se apaixonou por Elvis e nós começamos a mudar. No dia seguinte, nos tornamos clones de Elvis. " Larry emprestou a Buddy o dinheiro para uma Fender Stratocaster.

O repertório de Buddy se expandiu enquanto ele ouvia R & ampB negro tocado no programa de rádio Stan's Record Rack de Shreveport, Louisiana, e ele estava importunando músicos e seus empresários por uma oportunidade de gravar. Ele assinou contrato com a divisão de Nashville da Decca e gravou três sessões, produzidas por Owen Bradley, durante 1956. Ele não ficou feliz com os resultados, provavelmente porque tinha pouca participação e geralmente não tinha permissão para tocar guitarra, e a Decca fez pouca promoção , mas os resultados são atraentes. "Blue Days - Black Nights" foi um single envolvente, "Rock Around With Ollie Vee" de Sonny Curtis se beneficia de uma inspirada performance rockabilly e "Midnight Shift" (uma música sobre uma prostituta!) É o primeiro de vários vocais excêntricos. Ouça como Holly diz "carro" e "longe", você pode ouvir Bob Dylan fazendo a mesma coisa 10 anos depois.

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Em 17 de junho de 1956, o jornal de Lubbock, o Avalanche-Journal, começou uma série sobre os males do rock'n'roll. Eles mostraram aos dançarinos do Bamboo Club quando Holly estava se apresentando e escureceram seus olhos. Os jovens dançavam o "bop sujo". O jornal disse: "O guitarrista gritou roucamente as palavras ininteligíveis 'Hound Dog'." Dizia sobre o público: "São adolescentes brancos de toda a cidade, ricos e pobres, de lares bons e ruins." A Sra. Holley escreveu ao jornal para defender os adolescentes, mas sua carta não foi impressa.

Também em junho de 1956, The Searchers, um faroeste dirigido por John Ford e estrelado por John Wayne, estreou em Lubbock. O novo baterista de Holly, Jerry Allison, estava lá. "Buddy e eu fomos ver os The Searchers e, por alguns dias depois, estávamos zombando da maneira como John Wayne disse: 'Esse será o dia.' Em seguida, escrevemos a música. A primeira vez que gravamos foi em Nashville para a Decca Records. Era o verão de 1956 e eu tinha acabado de sair da escola. O produtor disse: 'Essa é a pior música que já ouvi no meu vida.' Isso magoou meus sentimentos porque foi a primeira música que eu escrevi! "

O astro country Webb Pierce aconselhou Buddy a "cantar alto se quiser um hit". Foi um conselho terrível, mas explica por que Buddy cantou "That'll Be the Day" o mais alto que pôde. Ele parecia desconfortável e gravaria muito melhor mais tarde. Ainda assim, Owen Bradley deveria ter reconhecido o potencial da música.

Em 1957, Holly queria escapar de seu contrato com a Decca. Ele sabia sobre o estúdio de Norman Petty a 90 milhas de distância, em Clovis, Novo México, já que Petty, de 40 anos, havia produzido um que vendeu atualmente um milhão de exemplares, "Party Doll", de Buddy Knox. Com a confiança da juventude, Holly disse a Petty: "Se você pode conseguir um trago para Buddy Knox, pode me dar um."

Como seu empresário e produtor, Petty é frequentemente retratado como um vilão, adicionando seu nome, por exemplo, aos créditos de composição de "That'll Be the Day". Mas ele apreciava o talento de Holly e não era pior do que os outros gerentes da época.

Sonny West é filosófico sobre compartilhar seu crédito por "Oh Boy!" e "Rave On" com Norman Petty: "Norman não me deu escolha. Era pegar isso ou cair fora. Depois de ouvir a versão de Buddy para 'Oh Boy!', não havia como recusar. Norman tinha o poder e ele fez isso com tantos caras. Ele pegou metade ou um terço de quase todas as músicas que podia, mais os direitos de publicação. Eu queria que as coisas tivessem sido diferentes, mas não estão e não posso mudar isso. " Ao contrário dos produtores de Nashville, Petty não gravava com o relógio, permitindo que cada faixa durasse o tempo que levasse, um ambiente perfeito para um músico experimental como Holly.

Em um movimento curioso, Petty contratou Holly e seu grupo, The Crickets, para uma subsidiária da Decca, Brunswick Records. "That'll Be the Day" liderou as paradas britânicas e americanas, incidentalmente no topo das paradas dos EUA quando Holly tinha apenas 500 dias de vida.

Frank Allen, da banda dos anos 1960 The Searchers adorou o álbum: "Para ser uma estrela, você obviamente precisa de uma quantidade desejável de talento, mas o fator mais importante é a individualidade - e Buddy era distinto e inconfundível, tanto visual quanto auditivamente. Enquanto éramos esquivando-se, tentando encontrar um quarto acorde, Buddy estava nos dando os compassos de abertura de "That'll Be the Day" com uma perícia inacreditável e em um instrumento que era o equivalente a um Cadillac 1959 com barbatana de bala. Ele parecia desajeitado e geeks com aqueles óculos, mas aquela guitarra o tornava incrivelmente legal, e ele sabia como tocá-la. Foi a vingança do nerd. Seus discos são quase sem exceção fantásticos. Ele acertou tudo. "

A maioria dos artistas principais lançava quatro singles e um álbum por ano, mas Petty percebeu que Holly era produtiva e fez arranjos para discos solo, ainda apoiados por The Crickets, na Coral, outra subsidiária da Decca. A carreira de sucesso de Holly durou apenas 18 meses, mas sua produção foi o dobro de outros músicos. É uma pena que Holly tenha perdido Sonny Curtis (que se juntou à banda de Slim Whitman) e Bob Montgomery (que estava estudando), mas The Crickets consistia em Allison, o baixista Joe B Mauldin e, durante a maior parte de 1957, o guitarrista Niki Sullivan , que não era VC para o trabalho. Quando Sullivan não conseguiu igualar sua guitarra em "Words of Love", Holly gravou sua parte duas vezes.

O primeiro sucesso de Buddy Holly sob seu próprio nome teria sido "Cindy Lou", um aceno para sua jovem sobrinha, mas Allison o convenceu a reescrevê-lo para impressionar a garota com quem ele queria se casar, Peggy Sue Gerron. A seção "linda, linda, linda Peggy Sue" mantém sua origem das canções de ninar, assim como a maneira como Holly continua cantando seu nome de maneira diferente.

Eu perguntei a dois compositores principais por que a música de Holly não me diz muito sobre "Peggy Sue". Sir Tim Rice diz: "Bem, em 1957, poucas canções pop mergulharam fundo na psicologia emocional e, de qualquer forma, os discos tinham apenas dois minutos de duração! No entanto, os outros aspectos do disco, notadamente os diferentes timbres vocais e truques que Buddy adotou, que são quase cômicas em um ponto, foram consideradas características mais importantes para transmitir seu personagem. Peggy Sue aparece como peculiar e ligeiramente inatingível, além disso, descobrimos que ela é bonita. A cantora está oprimida e reduzida a se exibir. "

Gary Osborne, letrista de The War of the Worlds, concorda: "'Peggy Sue' é a mais básica e simples das canções de amor e, quando 'básico e simples' funciona, realmente funciona. O tratamento também é lindamente simplificado. Parece como três caras dirigindo pela rodovia em um grande carro americano velho com o motorista cantando e seu companheiro no banco do passageiro tocando guitarra, enquanto o baterista está sentado atrás deles, marcando o tempo atrás do banco do motorista. Um clássico! "

Bruce Welch, do The Shadows, fica encantado com a guitarra de Holly: "Buddy toca o captador do baixo na maior parte da música e depois muda para o agudo e volta para o verso. Se você ouvir o disco em latas, poderá ouvir Niki Sullivan gire a chave para ele. Não teria sido nenhum problema para Buddy fazer isso sozinho, e ele deve ter feito isso sozinho. Haveria uma fração de segundo de atraso, mas você não notaria. "

Igualmente importante é a bateria de Jerry Allison. Estava tão alto que vazou para outros microfones, então Petty colocou sua bateria na área de recepção. De lá, ele passou os fios do microfone pela câmara de eco e obteve o efeito de eco de entrada e saída aumentando e diminuindo manualmente o volume e a quantidade de eco em sincronia com a música. Isso deu a "Peggy Sue" um som único, e a bateria de Allison impulsiona a música da mesma maneira que Al Jackson levou Otis Redding a uma performance notável com "Respect".

Bobby Vee, que gravou com The Crickets, aprecia o talento de Allison: "Qualquer um que já tocou bateria rock'n'roll foi influenciado por Jerry Allison. Ele é um estilista incrível e muito inovador, e ainda toca muito bem. Havia sem regras, então ele poderia fazer o que quisesse, batendo os joelhos em 'Everyday' ou tocando uma caixa de papelão em 'Not Fade Away'. Ele tem pulsos ótimos - ele toca bateria principal. "

É errado presumir que as canções simples de Holly implicam em simplicidade. Dominic Pedler, autor de The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles, analisa o mais simples de todos, o lado B de "Peggy Sue", o caprichoso "Everyday": "Entre os melhores momentos musicais de Buddy Holly está a ponte para 'Everyday', que mostra sua compreensão de um ciclo de cinco acordes derivado de forma clássica, que se desdobra de forma tão irresistível em direção ao clímax musical e lírico da música ('Você sempre desejou um amor verdadeiro de mim?'). Não sei se Holly já tinha ouvido Marlene 'Falling In Love Again' de Dietrich, mas ele consegue uma abordagem brilhante desse conceito naquela ponte, descendo em quintas inevitáveis, mas criando um efeito inteligente que termina naquela cadência imperfeita suspensa ao invés de uma resolução estabelecida na nota tônica como na grande maioria de ciclos de quintas: por exemplo, em 'Falling In Love Again', 'Não posso evitar' nos leva a uma sensação de encerramento. "

Além de gravar com o The Crickets, Holly realizou um trabalho de sessão, auxiliando pequenos músicos que estavam gravando no estúdio de Petty. Ele trabalhou com a jovem cantora folk Carolyn Hester. Em sua turnê pela Austrália, ele e Jerry Allison foram levados com "Real Wild Child", interpretada pelo astro local Johnny O'Keefe. Allison gravou a música com um vocal frio e lacônico, mas os vocais de fundo entusiasmados de Holly se destacaram.

Por um erro de agência, os Crickets se juntaram a R & ampB em locais negros, incluindo o Apollo no Harlem, mas a personalidade envolvente de Holly venceu. Em março de 1958, Holly teve que se adaptar para tocar em uma turnê de variedades no Reino Unido e aprendeu piadas com o compère, Des O'Connor. “Eu ganhei 100 libras por semana por ser o compère e cômico da turnê, o que era muito dinheiro”, diz O'Connor. "Estávamos em turnê com a Orquestra Ronnie Keene, que tinha muitos metais, e então veio The Crickets, apenas três deles, e eu não conseguia descobrir como eles estavam fazendo 10 vezes mais barulho. Foi tão emocionante e vibrante e eu sabia que algo emocionante estava acontecendo. "

Muitos jovens músicos britânicos ficaram cegos pela luz e saíram querendo as Fender Stratocasters, que não tinham canal de marketing no Reino Unido. Brian Poole, do The Tremeloes, disse: "Buddy Holly e The Crickets eram a coisa mais barulhenta que já tínhamos ouvido. Era uma banda pequena, mas eles fizeram barulho quando entraram e foi muito, muito emocionante. Estávamos fazendo Buddy Músicas da Holly pelos próximos cinco anos. Em um estágio, não havia nada em nosso show que não fosse uma música de Buddy Holly. Não tínhamos visto uma Fender Strat antes - era como uma prancha plana, e agora todas as guitarras são assim . Gostávamos tanto de Buddy Holly que eu tinha cabelos e óculos exatamente iguais aos dele. "

Alvin Stardust, que fez sucesso com "I Feel Like Buddy Holly" em 1984, conheceu Holly nessa turnê. "Eu tinha 13 ou 14 anos e peguei o ônibus para ver Buddy Holly and The Crickets em Doncaster e peguei meu violão no qual estava tentando aprender acordes. Nunca tinha ido a um show de música antes e consegui nos bastidores. Os Crickets foram todos muito educados e calados. Eles me perguntaram quantos acordes eu sabia e eu disse: 'Eu conheço três', e Buddy disse: 'Você pode tocar todas as minhas músicas então.' Eles me fizeram tirá-lo e estávamos cantando 'Peggy Sue' juntos, então Buddy assinou para mim. "

De volta a Clovis, Holly fez amizade com o guitarrista Tommy Allsup, que tocou em suas gravações de "Heartbeat" (o único disco de Holly a justificar uma etiqueta "Tex-Mex"), "It's So Easy", "Love's Made a Fool of You" e "Wishing", as duas últimas composições destinadas aos Everly Brothers. O empresário deles, o espinhoso Wesley Rose, não permitiria isso porque não poderia ter a publicação. Tommy Allsup: "Buddy era um bom guitarrista, mas não conseguiu tocar o solo que queria em 'It's So Easy', então isso se chama segurança no trabalho. Ele me pediu para fazer uma turnê com ele."

Em Nova York, Buddy fez amizade com Maria Elena Santiago, que morava com sua tia e trabalhava para a Southern Music, empresa que administrava o catálogo de Petty em Nova York. Ela era cinco anos mais velha e ele a pediu em casamento no primeiro encontro. Eles se casaram em Lubbock em 15 de agosto de 1958 e compartilharam uma lua de mel em Acapulco com Jerry e Peggy Sue.

A sessão final de gravação de Buddy em Clovis contou com "Reminiscing", uma canção triste, mas como tantas vezes com Holly, ele não parece chateado com isso: suas acrobacias vocais incluem um ótimo "bayee-ayee-bee" e semi-yodelling. Foi apoiado pelo saxofonista King Curtis, que também gravou "When Sin Stops" com Waylon Jennings. Este foi planejado como o primeiro lançamento em uma gravadora formada por Holly e Phil Everly. Holly também queria abrir suas próprias gravadoras e editoras em Lubbock, com a intenção de trabalhar com Allsup e Montgomery.

Considerando a qualidade de "Heartbeat" e "It's So Easy", é surpreendente que seus singles não estivessem nas paradas, mas a Decca confiou nele e organizou uma sessão orquestral em Nova York em outubro de 1958. Produziu "It Doesn ' t Matter Anymore "," Raining In My Heart "(escrita pelos escritores dos Everly Brothers, os Bryants)," Moondreams "(uma canção deliciosa de Norman Petty) e o tributo de Holly a Maria Elena, "True Love Ways".

"It Doesn't Matter Anymore" de Paul Anka foi submetido no dia da sessão, e Dick Jacobs só teve tempo de pontuar para cordas pizzicato, o que foi uma inovação para a música popular, embora Tchaikovsky tivesse estado lá primeiro.

O cantor e compositor Ron Sexsmith comenta: "Minha mãe tinha uma ótima coleção de 45 e eu costumava vesti-los quando tinha cerca de cinco anos. Amava 'It Doesn't Matter Anymore' porque gostava de como ele iria uma voz baixa para aquele soluço. A música está em desacordo com o tema da música, pois o cara está tentando superar seu coração partido, dizendo que a pessoa não importa mais, mas talvez ele realmente esteja dizendo que isso importa muito . Gosto dessa contradição, embora não entendesse a profundidade da música quando era jovem. "

Maria Elena, que conhecia os negócios de Petty, encorajou Buddy a se separar. Como os Crickets ficaram com Petty, ele teve que trabalhar com novos músicos. Maria Elena Holly diz: "Buddy não tinha dinheiro porque seu empresário não queria deixar o dinheiro ir. É por isso que ele foi à Winter Dance Party."

Foi um inverno ruim em Nova York e Buddy trabalhou em novas canções, agora conhecidas como Apartment Tapes. Seu pai sugeriu uma continuação de "Peggy Sue", então ele gravou uma canção-resposta, "Peggy Sue Got Married". O sigilo na letra era o comentário de Holly sobre o fato de que as estrelas pop não deveriam se casar. Não é estranho, porém, que Buddy Holly, recém-casado e morando em casa, escreva sobre o amor que deu errado ("Aprendendo o Jogo", "Chorando, Esperando, Esperando") e o casamento de seu melhor amigo?

Gary Osborne diz: "Adoro a maneira como ele confia em você em 'Peggy Sue Got Married', é como se ele tivesse te agredido em um pub por causa de uma fofoca. Se essa era a direção que suas composições estavam tomando, então sua morte foi uma perda ainda maior do que a maioria das pessoas pensa. É uma melodia maravilhosa também. "

Billy Bragg acrescenta: "Depois da explosão inicial de canções de Chuck Berry, houve uma pequena recaída, mas Buddy Holly cortou isso com sua visão do que as canções poderiam ser. 'True Love Ways' é incrível - apenas um dois e- música de meio minuto, mas é o trabalho de um visionário. Adoraria ter escrito "Peggy Sue Got Married" porque gosto muito dessa música e também adoro "Raining In My Heart", embora Eu sei que ele não escreveu. "

Buddy e Maria Elena foram passar o Natal em Lubbock. Ele finalizou o pessoal de sua nova banda na Winter Dance Party (Tommy Allsup, Waylon Jennings, Carl Bunch) e deixou Lubbock na véspera de Ano Novo. Maria Elena diz: "Eu queria sair em turnê com Buddy, mas estava grávida e tive enjoos matinais. Buddy queria ganhar algum dinheiro porque se sentia mal por minha tia estar cuidando de nós. Ele tinha estado na Inglaterra e queria para me levar lá. Ele até pensou em abrir um estúdio em Londres. Ele disse: 'Você verá quanto talento existe na Inglaterra.' Ele teria estabelecido estúdios em Londres, Nova York e Lubbock. "

A Winter Dance Party foi uma turnê mal administrada pelo meio-oeste americano, em condições abaixo de zero. Em 2 de fevereiro de 1959, Buddy, cansado dos treinadores quebrados e querendo tempo para lavar sua roupa, alugou um avião para levá-lo de Clear Lake, Iowa, para o próximo local. Ele caiu, pouco depois da meia-noite e poucos minutos após deixar o solo, matando os três músicos (Holly, Ritchie Valens e o Big Bopper) a bordo, bem como o piloto.

On 7 February, Buddy Holly's funeral took place at the Tabernacle Baptist Church, Lubbock with the service conducted by Ben Johnson and more than 1,000 people present. Maria Elena was too upset to attend as she had also suffered a miscarriage. Buddy's favourite gospel record, "I'll Be Alright" by the Angelic Gospel Singers, was played. Very few of the congregation would have heard "True Love Ways" and wouldn't connect the two songs, but Holly had borrowed its opening notes.

As Buddy Holly was the first rock'n'roll star to die, various questions of ethics and taste were explored for the first time: should a record company continue his legacy, and what is the merit of tribute singles? Don McLean may have called Holly's death "the day the music died", but in effect his death ensured it was the day the music lived.

A week after his death, "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" was released in the UK and went to No 1. This is the first instance of a record becoming a hit after an artist's death. In addition, the compilation, The Buddy Holly Story, was a huge success in Britain and America, remaining on the US charts for more than three years. With the release of unissued material, often with overdubbed backings, Holly had a steady stream of releases throughout the 1960s. Both "Brown Eyed Handsome Man" and "Bo Diddley" were Top 10 singles during the British beat era.

There have been the chart-topping compilations Buddy Holly Lives (1978) and Words of Love (1993), but because of disputes between Maria Elena and the various owners of his recordings, there has not, until now, been a comprehensive CD box set. They had no choice on this: as of 1 January 2009, all recordings prior to 1959 have fallen into the public domain and reissue labels can issue packages without licence but hopefully with flair and merit.

Almost immediately after his death, there were artists who followed on from Holly – Adam Faith and Mike Berry in the UK: Bobby Vee and Tommy Roe in the US. Numerous artists have had hits with Holly's songs, including Linda Ronstadt, Leo Sayer, Mud and Cliff Richard, and he was one of Ian Dury's reasons to be cheerful. The actor Nick Berry reached No 2 with his version of the title song of the TV series Heartbeat. The Rolling Stones had their first Top 10 single with "Not Fade Away" in 1964, and the song has become a mainstay for rock jams. You can catch workouts on YouTube from Springsteen, Dylan (who saw Holly on his final tour), Status Quo and the Grateful Dead.

More significantly, Buddy Holly was a springboard for The Beatles' creativity – they chose an insect name as homage to The Crickets and Paul McCartney was to purchase his publishing rights. Philip Norman, a biographer of Holly and John Lennon, says: "John and Paul used to do a pastiche of Buddy Holly, but then everybody used to imitate Buddy that was the whole point. Buddy's voice invited you to imitate him and if you did that, you could see how the songs were put together."

The songwriter Tony Macaulay says: "Most people in the late Fifties were into Elvis Presley, but Holly was the nerd's hero. He wasn't very sexual or particularly good-looking but he had great warmth and he invented the two guitars, bass, drums line-up as we understand it now. He got more spotty, pre-pubescent boys writing songs and playing the guitar than anybody else, and I was one of them. His death had such an impact on young boys, more so I think than if Elvis Presley had died."

We can say that Buddy Holly created a series of firsts, although most of them need qualification – the first singer/songwriter of the rock'n'roll era the first to have the lead/rhythm/bass/drums line-up the first to use studio trickery such as double-tracking the first to have strings on a rock'n'roll record the first to use the Fender Stratocaster and the first rock'n'roll star to wear glasses. Not that retrogazing means much – by general acknowledgment, Bill Haley and his Comets made the first rock'n'roll record, certainly the first truly successful one – but what Haley did was totally surpassed by Elvis Presley a few months later.

Does it even matter that Buddy Holly was the first geek star? Bill Haley, Bo Diddley and Gene Vincent hardly traded on their looks, and in that department, it was really Elvis versus everybody else.

Although the bio-pic The Buddy Holly Story and the stage musical Buddy have their faults, they do show the joie de vivre of being Buddy Holly, and show that he was a maverick in the best sense – an independent-minded person who knew how to get others on his side.

Taking everything together, Buddy should be acknowledged as rock's first great all-rounder, the Ian Botham of rock'n'roll. He should be recognised for all his talents: singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, bandleader, arranger and producer. And he could perform ballads, country and rock'n'roll with a winning personality – he was good at everything. No other rock'n'roll star possessed all these attributes, although Eddie Cochran, who died in 1960, was coming up fast. Chuck Berry ticked most of the boxes but possessed no team spirit.

As Buddy Holly died young, we can only guess at what he would have achieved. If Brian Wilson had died when he was 22, we would not have known of his potential to make Pet Sounds. Buddy might have become a middle-of-the-road entertainer, and my guess is that he would have transformed country music along the lines of Willie Nelson, and would have collaborated with everyone he met.

As it is, his music is frozen in time. It is impossible to hear his recordings without thinking of his end, so they acquire an additional resonance. His legacy is certain to endure.

Spencer Leigh is the author of 'Everyday: Getting Closer to Buddy Holly', to be published by SAF in March. 'The Very Best of Buddy Holly and The Crickets' is released on Universal

The crash that changed music history

Buddy Holly woke up on Monday morning, 2 February 1959, in Green Bay, Wisconsin, with his whole body aching. For the past fortnight, he had been sleeping either on the tour bus or in fleabag hotels as he played an appallingly organised tour of the American Midwest, travelling on treacherous roads in near-Arctic conditions. His run of hits was over – he hoped only temporarily – but he was free from his dishonest manager and he would be rebuilding his career in New York. The fans' reaction at each venue gave him encouragement, the only bright moments on this ungodly tour.

The touring party had had a succession of buses with broken heaters. It was impossible to socialise with the other musicians as their prime concern was keeping warm. The previous day, the drummer had been admitted to hospital with frostbite, and they had to work out who would replace him. Holly agreed to drum for 17-year-old Ritchie Valens, who was making his way up the charts with "La Bamba".

At around 9am, the tour bus – their sixth in 10 days – set off on a 350-mile journey from Green Lake to the Surf Ballroom, Clear Lake, Iowa. It was gruelling and, with breakdowns, would take nine hours. By then, 21-year-old Roger Peterson had reported for work at Dwyer's Flying Service in Mason City, Iowa. During his short career, he had flown 700 hours, but he had failed an examination for flying by instruments alone. As no flights were scheduled, he spent the day welding.

The manager of the Surf Ballroom, Carroll Anderson, was keen to quash reports that rock'n'roll was equated with juvenile delinquency and he would admit adults to the dance for only 10 cents. When the bus arrived, Holly told Anderson that he wanted to charter a plane to take himself and his guitarists, Tommy Allsup and Waylon Jennings, to the next venue – the Armoury, Moorhead, Minnesota, some 500 miles away. Anderson called Jerry Dwyer who told him that the flight would cost $108. Peterson was told to report back for a flight at 12.30am to Fargo airport, North Dakota.

Buddy found time to call his new wife, Maria Elena, but he wasn't totally forthcoming. "It was the tour from hell," says Maria Elena. "Everybody got sick the buses were breaking down it was bad weather and very cold. Buddy called me in Clear Lake but he never told me about the plane. That was Buddy, though: he was always taking over."

At around 10.30pm, another tour member, the Big Bopper, who had flu, asked Waylon Jennings for his seat and, in compensation, he offered Waylon his new sleeping-bag. Waylon said: "If it's all right with Buddy, it's all right with me."

At 11.20pm, the other performers joined Holly on stage for the final songs of the evening, "La Bamba" and "Brown-Eyed Handsome Man". Since his first hit, "That'll Be the Day", Buddy Holly had performed in 200 venues in 18 months.

After the show, the Big Bopper asked Buddy if he could take Waylon's place. "I hope your ol' bus freezes up again," joked Holly as Waylon chuckled back: "Well, I hope your ol' plane crashes."

At midnight, Ritchie Valens, who was signing autographs, saw Allsup and pleaded for a seat on the plane. Reluctantly, Allsup tossed a coin. Ritchie Valens called "heads" and won, saying: "Gee, that's the first time I've won anything in my life." Allsup asked Holly to collect a registered letter from the post office in Moorhead, and gave Buddy his wallet for ID.

It was snowing, with 35mph gusts of wind, when they reached the airport. Peterson had not been told he might have to fly by instruments. Once airborne, Peterson was forced to depend on them and, in all probability, he misread the gyroscope, believing the plane was climbing when it was descending.

The crash, at about 170mph, was on to farmland. The right wing hit the ground and was ripped off. The plane bounced 50ft and skidded another 500ft before crashing into a fence. Peterson's body remained inside, while the fuselage split open and the others were thrown out. The Big Bopper's body was in an adjoining cornfield. Jerry Dwyer found the wreckage at 9am.

Back in Buddy's hometown of Lubbock, Larry Corbin read out the report from Associated Press on the 11 o'clock news, believing that the families had been notified. He subsequently went to Buddy's parents' home to apologise. The station had to fight to keep its licence after this error.

Buddy's brother, Travis, out on a tiling job, had a coffee break. The waitress said: "Shouldn't you go home as your brother's been killed?" He thought his other brother, Larry, had had an accident and dashed to his house. He then went to his parents' house. Larry had gone to tell Travis and then also went to his parents'.

At noon, the tour bus reached Moorhead – on time. Tommy Allsup went into Hotel Comstock while the others were sleeping, and the receptionist told him what had happened. He rang his mother and learnt that he had been presumed dead as his wallet had been found. The promoters talked the musicians into continuing the tour and the Armoury management reduced the fee as the main performers weren't there. "Real nice people," Waylon Jennings commented.

The next morning, a 13-year-old in New Rochelle, Don McLean, got up early to deliver newspapers before he went to school.

'Buddy was way ahead of the pack'

I can't remember being alive without hearing Buddy Holly. For me, it's not music, it's oxygen. My dad in Sheffield had all Holly's albums and I used to listen to them as a kid. "Mailman, Bring Me No More Blues" was one of the first songs I learnt to sing or play, at six years old, along with "Words of Love", "Everyday" and "That'll Be the Day".

For a young musician, all the Buddy Holly classics are a brilliant place to start. He played rhythmic chords in a lot of his solos, instead of over-flashy pyrotechnic guitar playing. There's no doubt that he was innovative and ahead of his time. The recording technique that he used – multitracking – had only just been invented by Les Paul. Most people in those days would just record live, using justone microphone.

My favourite track is "It Doesn't Matter Anymore". It is a very beautiful and sad song – but the chord structure is quite uplifting, and it has an amazing string section on it as well.

Right at the end of his life, Holly was moving away from simple rock'n'roll music to something far more complex, such as in the songs "Moondreams", "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" and "Raining In My Heart".

There's an attitude towards things that Buddy Holly had, along with a lot of other artists who influenced me, including Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, The Everly Brothers, Gene Vincent, Eddie Cochran and Fats Domino. This was to keep things simple, and not to over-egg the pudding. There was no messing around with them, as they went straight for the jugular.

The thing about Buddy Holly that was unique was that, because of the original name of the band, The Crickets, and the way they sounded in the song 'That'll Be the Day", everybody thought they were black. He was the first white artist to play the Apollo Theatre in Harlem, and nobody could believe the band was white. There was a lot of racial and cultural cross-fertilisation happening at this time, and Buddy Holly was way ahead of the pack.

Before him, artists didn't write their own songs, and he was a complete holistic entity. He produced his own music, he performed it and he also wrote it. He was a brilliant songwriter really simple, to the point, beautifully constructed two- or three-minute pop songs. That was a benchmark for bands such as The Beatles.

My kids enjoy the music as much as I do, and I am sure something in that music will appeal to the human race for ever, because its subject matter and delivery are so soulful. It's something we all need to help us along.


By Mike Wester, Lubbock Avalanche-Journal (Texas) February 2, 1975

&ldquoYou say you&rsquore gonna leave
You know it&rsquos a lie
&lsquoCause that&rsquoll be the day
When I die.&rdquo

A SINGLE-ENGINE four-seat air-plane took off from a Mason City, Iowa, runway into light snow and 35 mile an hour winds at 1:50 a.m. February 3, 1959.

The plane was headed for Fargo, N.D., but fifteen minutes after takeoff, the left wing tip grazed a cornfield five miles north of Clear Lake, Iowa. The plane plowed up hundreds of feet of earth and came to rest against a fence. No one heard the crash.

Pilot Roger Peterson and three rock &lsquon&rsquo roll stars were killed. The rock stars were Buddy Holly, &ldquothe unforgettable Texan&rdquo Ritchie Valens, perhaps best known for his recording of &ldquoDonna,&rdquo and J.P. &ldquoBig Bopper&rdquo Richardson, famed for his golden record &ldquoChantilly Lace.&rdquo

For Mr. and Mrs. L.O. Holley (Buddy changed his name to Holly after a printing mistake on his first record cover), it was not a musical legend which died in the crash, but instead, their youngest of three sons, a quiet boy with a dry sense of humor whose talent catapulted him to fame and death in two years.

MANY OF TODAY&rsquoS teenagers know little about the recording artist who may have done more in two years to change the nation&rsquos style of music than any other individual before or since his time.

From June of 1957 &mdash when his first record was released &mdash until his death, Buddy Holly was one of the hottest recording artists in the world. The Buddy Holly list of hits includes &ldquoTrue Love Ways,&rdquo &ldquoPeggy Sue,&rdquo &ldquoIt Doesn&rsquot Matter Anymore,&rdquo &ldquoWords of Love,&rdquo &ldquoNot Fade Away,&rdquo &ldquoMaybe Baby,&rdquo &ldquoHeartbeat,&rdquo &ldquoRave On,&rdquo &ldquoRaining in My Heart,&rdquo and perhaps his most famous &mdash &ldquoThat&rsquoll be the Day.&rdquo

Sitting in their music room at home, the Holleys tell the story of the singer who got his start singing country music at local high school dances. &ldquoHe was so small that we usually sent his two older brothers to the dances just to make sure he didn&rsquot get into trouble,&rdquo his father said.

The &ldquomusic room&rdquo almost gives one the feeling of a small hall of fame, a memorial trophy room to the boy who practiced his guitar there, always with a tape recorder going so he could hear himself later.

A LARGE PORTRAIT of Buddy hangs on the wall above a rack of albums of recording stars who help make his music famous. On another wall is his sound equipment &mdash stereo, tape recorder and speakers. His own albums line a third wall, and in the corner, below another gold record, is his guitar with a leather cover bearing his name.

There are 18 Buddy Holly albums containing 88 songs &mdash of which 30 were written by Holly himself. Several of the recordings were released after his death by using tapes he made during practice sessions at home.

&ldquoWe always knew Buddy was talented,&rdquo says his mother. &ldquoIn fact, he won a singing contest when he was 5. But he put his music aside for a while, until he got his first guitar at the age of 14.&rdquo

He made a leather cover for the guitar, tooling it himself. The cover bears his name and the titles of the first two songs he wrote, &ldquoLove Me&rdquo and &ldquoBlue Days, Black Nights.&rdquo That&rsquos the guitar the Holleys still have.

Holly was young, eager and married only six months when he died. He was killed at the height of his popularity, which continues now through a cult that has quietly grown around his memory.

Buddy&rsquos diamond watch was discovered in the snow in Iowa three months after the crash and a farmer returned it to the Holleys. Buddy&rsquos father still wears the watch engraved with Buddy&rsquos name on the back.

BORN CHARLES Hardin Holley on Sept. 7, 1936, he soon picked up the nickname of Buddy, one that stuck with him from preschool days until his death.

He is buried in Lubbock&rsquos Municipal Cemetery, on the west side near a large, watching angel. His grave has a flat monument bearing the design of a guitar.

His wife still keeps close contact with the family, although she has since remarried. &ldquoWe enjoy hearing from her from time to time, and each time we feel a little closer to Buddy,&rdquo said his mother.

Little will be made of Holly or his death in his hometown Monday, 16 years after his death. Two country and western radio stations will play Buddy Holly hits, and one will dedicate a two-hour show to Holly&rsquos memory.

Fact, fiction and fable have blended over the years and it is difficult to learn how it all happened.

Many say Holly was just a little before his time, but his special beat of music turned the recording industry around and new sounds moved to the front and continued after his death.

BEFORE THE accident that ended his career, Holly had received two gold records for selling more than a million copies each &mdash &ldquoPeggy Sue&rdquo and &ldquoThat&rsquoll Be the Day.&rdquo

About 5 million records had been sold before his death. Many millions more have been sold since and he continues to be among the top sellers both in America and abroad.

The music Buddy made is not dead. His sounds are still heard around the world. &ldquoBuddy&rsquos fans have kept him alive for us,&rdquo his father said. &rdquoSometimes I slip into the room and play some of his albums, and it seems like Buddy&rsquos right here with me.&rdquo

&ldquoYou left me here so I could sit and cry
Well, golly gee, what have you done to me?
Oh well, I guess it doesn&rsquot matter any more.&rdquo

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Aircraft Accident Report for Buddy Holly's crash

A Beach Bonanza, N 3794N, crashed at night approximately 5 miles northwest of the Mason City Municipal Airport, Mason City, Iowa, at approximately 0100, February 3, 1959. The pilot and three passengers were killed and the aircraft was demolished.

The aircraft was observed to take off toward the south in a normal manner, turn and climb to an estimated altitude of 800 feet, and then head in a north-westerly direction. when approximately 5 miles had been traversed, the tail light at the aircraft was seen to descend gradually until it disappeared from sight. Following this, many unsuccessful attempts were made to contact the aircraft by radio. The wreckage was found in a field later that morning.

This accident, like so many before it, was caused by the pilot's decision to undertake a night in which the likelihood of encountering instrument conditions existed, in the mistaken belief that he could cope with en route instrument weather conditions, without having the necessary familiarization with the instruments in the aircraft and without being properly certificated to fly solely by instruments.

Charles Hardin, J. P. Richardson, and Richard Valenzuela were members of a group of entertainers appearing in Clear Lake, Iowa, the night of February 2, 1959. The following night they were to appear in Moorhead, Minnesota. Because of bus trouble, which had plagued the group, these three decided to go to Moorhead ahead of the others. Accordingly, arrangements were made through Roger Peterson of the Dwyer Flying Service, Inc., located on the Mason city Airport, to charter an aircraft to fly to Fargo, North Dakota, the nearest airport to Moorhead.

At approximately 1730, [1] Pilot Peterson went to the Air Traffic communications station (ATCS), which was located in a tower on top of the Administration Building, to obtain the necessary weather information pertinent to the night. This included the current weather at Mason City, Iowa Minneapolis, Redwood Falls, and Alexandria, Minnesota and the terminal forecast for Fargo, North Dakota. He was advised by the communicator that all these stations were reporting ceilings of 5,000 feet or better and visibilities of 10 miles or above also, that the Fargo terminal forecast indicated the possibility or light snow showers after 0200 and a cold frontal passage about 0400. The communicator told Peterson that a later terminal forecast would be available at 2300. At 2200 and again at 2320 Pilot Peterson called ATCS ​ concerning the weather. At the latter time he was advised that the stations en route were reporting ceilings of 4200 feet or better with visibilities still 10 miles or greater. Light snow was reported at Minneapolis. The cold front previously reported by the communicator as forecast to pass Fargo at 0400 was now reported to pass there at 0200. The Mason City weather was reported to the pilot as: ceiling measured 6,000 overcast visibility 15 miles plus temperature 15 degrees dewpoint 8 degrees wind south 25 to 32 knots altimeter setting 29.96 inches.

At 2355, Peterson, accompanied by Hubert Dwyer, a certificated commercial pilot, the local fixed-base operator at the Mason City Airport, and owner of Bonanza N 3794N (the aircraft used on the flight), again went to ATCS for the latest weather information. The local weather had changed somewhat in that the ceiling had lowered to 5,000 feet, light snow was falling, and the altimeter setting was now 29.90 inches.

The passengers arrived at the airport about 0040 and after their baggage had been properly stowed on board, the pilot and passengers boarded the aircraft. Pilot Paterson told Mr. Dwyer that he would file his flight plan by radio when airborne. While the aircraft was being taxied to the end of runway 17, Peterson called ATCS and asked for the latest local and en route weather. This was given him as not having changed materially en route however, the local weather was now reported as: Precipitation ceiling 3,000 feet, sky obscured visibility 6 miles light snow wind south 20 knots, gusts to 30 knots altimeter setting 29.85 inches.

A normal takeoff was made at 0055 and the aircraft was observed to make a left 180-degree turn and climb to approximately 800 feet and then, after passing the airport to the east, to head in a northwesterly direction. Through most of the flight the tail light of the aircraft was plainly visible to Mr. Dwyer, who was watching from a platform outside the tower. When about five miles from the airport, [2] Dwyer saw the tail light or the aircraft gradually descend until out of sight. When Peterson did not report his flight plan by radio soon after takeoff, the communicator, at Mr. Dwyer's request, repeatedly tried to reach him but was unable to do so. The time was approximately 0100.

After an extensive air search, the wreckage of N 3794N was sighted in an open farm field at approximately 0935 that morning. All occupants were dead and the aircraft was demolished. The Field in which the aircraft was found was level and covered with about four inches of snow.

The accident occurred in a sparsely inhabited area and there were no witnesses. Examination of the wreckage indicated that the first impact with the ground was made by the right wing tip when the aircraft was in a steep right bank and in a nose-low attitude. It was further determined that the aircraft was traveling at high speed on a heading of 315 degrees. Parts were scattered over a distance of 540 feet, at the end of which the main wreckage was found lying against a barbed wire fence. The three passengers were thrown clear of the wreckage, the pilot was found in ​ the cockpit. The two front seat safety belts and the middle ones of the rear seat were torn free from their attach points. The two rear outside belt ends remained. attached to their respective fittings the buckle of one was broken. None of the webbing was broken and no belts were about the occupants.

Although the aircraft was badly damaged, certain important facts were determined. There was no fire. All components were accounted for at the wreckage site. There was no evidence of inflight structural failure or failure of the controls. The landing gear was retracted at the time of impact. The damaged engine was dismantled and examined there was no evidence of engine malfunctioning or failure in flight. Both blades of the propeller were broken at the hub, giving evidence that the engine was producing power when ground impact occurred. The hub pitch-change mechanism indicated that the blade pitch was in the cruise range.

Despite the damage to the cockpit the following readings were obtained:
Magneto switches were both in the "off" position. Battery and generator switches were in the "on" position.
The tachometer r. p. m. needle was stuck at 2200.
Fuel pressure, oil temperature, and pressure gauges were stuck in the normal or green range.
The attitude gyro indicator was stuck in a manner indicative of a 90-degree right bank and nose-down attitude.
The rate of climb indicator was stuck at 3,000 feet per minute descent.
The airspeed indicator needle was stuck between 165-170 m. p. h.
The directional gyro was caged.
The omni selector was positioned at 114.9, the frequency of the Mason City omni range.
The course selector indicated a 360-degree course.
The transmitter was tuned to 122.1, the frequency for Mason City.
The Lear autopilot was not operable.

The aircraft, a Beech Bonanza, model 35, S/N-1019, identification H 394N, was manufactured October 17, 1947. It was powered by a Continental model E185-8 engine which had a total of 40 hours since major overhaul. The aircraft was purchased by the Dwyer Flying Service, July 1, 1958, and, according to records and the testimony of the licensed mechanic employed by Dwyer, had been properly maintained since its acquisition. N 3794N was equipped with high and low frequency radio transmitters and receivers, a Narco omnigator, Lear autopilot (only recently installed and not operable), all to necessary engine and navigational instruments, and a full panel of instruments used for instrument flying including a Sperry F3 attitude Gyro.

Roger Arthur Peterson, 21 years old, was regularly employed by the Dwyer Flying Service as a commercial pilot and flight instructor, and had been with ​ them about one year. He had been flying since October of 1954, and had accumulated 711 flying hours, of which 128 were in Bonanza aircraft. Almost all of the Bonanza time was acquired during charter flights. He had approximately 52 hours of dual instrument training and had passed his instrument written examination. He failed an instrument flight check on March 21, 1958, nine months prior to the accident. His last CAA second-class physical examination was taken March 29, 1958. A hearing deficiency of his right ear was found and because of this he was given a flight test. A waiver noting this hearing deficiency was issued November 29, 1958 According to his associates he was a young married man who built his life around flying. When his instrument training was taken, several aircraft were used and these were all equipped with the conventional type artificial horizon and none with the Sperry Attitude Gyro such as was installed in Bonanza N 3794N. These two instruments differ greatly in their pictorial display.

The conventional artificial horizon provides a direct reading indication of the bank and pitch attitude of the aircraft which is accurately indicated by a miniature aircraft pictorially displayed against a horizon bar and as if observed from the rear. The Sperry F3 gyro also provides a direct reading indication of the bank and pitch attitude of the aircraft, but its pictorial presentation is achieved by using a stabilized sphere whose free-floating movements behind a miniature aircraft presents pitch information with a sensing exactly opposite from that depicted by the conventional artificial horizon.

The surface weather chart for 0000 on February 3, 1959, showed a cold front extending from the northwestern corner of Minnesota through central Nebraska with a secondary cold front through North Dakota. Widespread snow shower activity was indicated in advance of these fronts. Temperatures along the airway route from Mason City to Fargo were below freezing at all levels with an inversion between 3,000 and 4,000 feet and abundant moisture present at all levels through 12,000 feet. The temperature and moisture content was such that moderate to heavy icing and precipitation existed in the clouds along the route. Winds aloft along the route at altitudes below 10,000 feet were reported to be 30 to 50 knots from a southwesterly direction, with the strongest winds indicated to be closest to the cold front.

A flash advisory issued by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Minneapolis at 2335 on February 2 contained the following information: "Flash Advisory No. 5. A band of snow about 100 miles wide at 2335 from extreme northwestern Minnesota, northern North Dakota through Bismarck and south-southwestward through Black Hills of South Dakota with visibility generally below 2 miles in snow. This area or band moving southeastward about 25 knots. Cold front at 2335 from vicinity Winnipeg through Minot, Williston, moving southeastward 25 to 30 knots with surface winds following front north northwest 25 gusts 45. Valid until 0335." Another advisory issued by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Kansas City, Missouri, at 0015 on February 3, was: "Flash Advisory No. 1. Over eastern half Kansas ceilings are locally below one thousand feet, visibilities locally 2 miles or less in freezing drizzle, light ​ snow and fog. Moderate to locally heavy icing areas of freezing drizzle and locally moderate icing in clouds below 10,000 feet over eastern portion Nebraska, Kansas, northwest Missouri, and most of Iowa. Valid until 0515." Neither communicator could recall having drawn these flash advisories to the attention of Pilot Peterson. Mr. Dwyer said that when he accompanied Pilot Peterson to ATCS, no information was given them indicating instrument flying weather would be encountered along the route.

There is no evidence to indicate that very important flash advisories regarding adverse weather conditions were drawn to the attention of the pilot. On the contrary there is evidence that the weather briefing consisted solely of the reading of current weather at en route terminals and terminal forecasts for the destination. Failure of the communicators to draw these advisories to the attention of the pilot and to emphasize their importance could readily lead the pilot to underestimate the severity of the weather situation.

It must be pointed out that the communicators' responsibility with respect to furnishing weather information to pilots is to give them all the available information, to interpret this data if requested, but not to advise in any manner. Also, the pilot and the operator in this case had a definite responsibility to request and obtain all of the available information and to interpret it correctly.

Mr. Dwyer said that he had confidence in Pilot Peterson and relied entirely on his operational judgment with respect to the planning and conduct of the flight.

At Mason City, at the time of takeoff, the barometer was falling, the ceiling and visibility were lowering, light snow had begun to fall, and the surface winds and winds aloft were so high one could reasonably have expected to encounter adverse weather during the estimated two-hour flight.

It was already snowing at Minneapolis, and the general forecast for the area along the intended route indicated deteriorating weather conditions. Considering all of these facts and the fact that the company was certificated to fly in accordance with visual flight rules only, both day and night, together with the pilot's unproven ability to fly by instrument, the decision to go seems most imprudent. It is believed that shortly after takeoff Pilot Peterson entered an area of complete darkness and one in which there was no definite horizon that the snow conditions and the lack of horizon required him to rely solely on flight instruments for aircraft attitude and orientation.

The high gusty winds and the attendant turbulence which existed this night would have caused the rate of climb indicator and the turn and bank indicator to fluctuate to such an extent that an interpretation of these instruments so far as attitude control is concerned would have been difficult to a pilot as inexperienced as Mr. Peterson. The airspeed and altimeter alone would not have provided him with ​ sufficient reference to maintain control of the pitch attitude. With his limited experience the pilot would tend to rely on the attitude gyro which is relatively stable under these conditions.

Service experience with the use of the attitude gyro has clearly indicated confusion among pilots during the transition period or when alternating between conventional and attitude gyros. Since Peterson had received his instrument training a in aircraft equipped with the conventional type artificial horizon, and since this instrument and the attitude gyro are opposite in their pictorial display of the pitch attitude, it is probable that the reverse sensing would at times produce reverse control action. This is especially true of instrument flight conditions requiring a high degree of concentration or requiring multiple function, as would be the case when flying instrument conditions in turbulence without a copilot. The directional gyro was found caged and it is possible that it was never used during the short flight. However, this evidence is not conclusive. If the directional gyro were caged throughout the flight this could only have added to the pilot's confusion.

At night, with an overcast sky, snow falling, no definite horizon, and a proposed flight over a sparsely settled area with an absence of ground lights, a requirement for control of the aircraft solely by reference to flight instruments can be predicated with virtual certainty.

The Board concludes that Pilot Peterson, when a short distance from the airport, was confronted with this situation. Because of fluctuation of the rate instruments caused by gusty winds he would have been forced to concentrate and rely greatly on the attitude gyro, an instrument with which he was not completely familiar. The pitch display of this instrument is the reverse of the instrument he was accustomed to therefore, he could have become confused and thought that he was making a climbing turn when in reality he was making a descending turn. The fact that the aircraft struck the ground in a steep turn but with the nose lowered only slightly, indicates that some control was being effected at the time. The weather briefing supplied to the pilot was seriously inadequate in that it failed to even mention adverse flying conditions which should have been highlighted.

The Board determines that the probable cause of this accident was the pilot's unwise decision to embark on a flight which would necessitate flying solely by instruments when he was not properly certificated or qualified to do so. Contributing factors were serious deficiencies in the weather briefing, and the pilot's unfamiliarity with the instrument which determines the attitude of the aircraft.

⁠ BY THE CIVIL AERONAUTICS BOARD:

/s/ JAMES R. DURFEE
/s/ CHAN GURNEY
/s/ HARMAR D. DENNY
/s/ G. JOSEPH MINETTI
/s/ LOUIS J. HECTOR


Buddy Holly’s glasses, lost since his death in 1959, are found in Mason City, Iowa - Feb 29, 1980.

TSgt Joe C.

When the Beechcraft Bonanza carrying Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper crashed outside Clear Lake, Iowa, in the early morning hours of February 3, 1959, it struck the ground with such force that all three passengers were killed instantly, and the plane’s wreckage was strewn across nearly 300 yards of snow-covered cornfields. The death certificate issued by the Cerro Gordo County Coroner noted the clothing Holly was wearing, the presence of a leather suitcase near his body and the following personal effects:

Cash $193.00 less $11.65 coroner’s fees – $181.35

2 Cuff links, silver 1/2 in. balls having jeweled band

Top portion of ball point pen

Notably missing from the list were Holly’s signature eyeglasses, the most distinctive visual legacy of a man who influenced the sound and style of rock and roll immeasurably. Those famous glasses were presumed lost forever until the announcement on February 29, 1980, that they had resurfaced in Mason City, Iowa.

The glasses in question had the appearance of something government issued, but they were, in fact, carefully chosen as part of Holly’s image—not by Holly himself, but by his Lubbock, Texas, optometrist, Dr. J. Davis Armistead. “Buddy was trying to wear the least conspicuous frames he could find,” wrote Dr. Armistead nearly 40 years after writing Holly’s last prescription. “Personally, I was not happy with the frame styles we had been using. I did not think they contributed anything to a distinct personality that a performer needs.” It was while on vacation in Mexico City that Armistead found exactly the frames that he felt Holly needed. He brought back two pair of the heavy plastic Faiosa frames. “Those heavy black frames achieve exactly what we wanted—they became a distinct part of him.” In fact, they became a part of the basic iconography and spirit of rock and roll. Before Buddy Holly, it would have been impossible to imagine a skinny, knock-need kid in an Ivy League suit and thick, heavy glasses being considered “cool.” After Buddy Holly, the look and attitude that would later be called “geek chic” became a completely accepted alternative style for an aspiring rock star to embrace.

So how did the famous glasses re-emerge? In the violence of the crash back in February 1959, they were thrown clear of the other wreckage and buried in snow. They were found, along with the Big Bopper’s watch, that same spring, when the melting snow made them visible again. Though they were handed in immediately to the Cerro Gordo County Sherriff’s office, they sat filed away for the next 21 years in a sealed manila envelope marked “rec’d April 7, 1959.” That envelope was opened by Sheriff Jerry Allen on this day in 1980. The glasses were eventually returned to Holly’s widow, and can now be seen in the exhibit at the Buddy Holly Center in Lubbock, Texas.


Feb 29, 1980: When the Beechcraft Bonanza carrying Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper crashed outside Clear Lake, Iowa, in the early morning hours of February 3, 1959, it struck the ground with such force that all three passengers were killed instantly, and the plane’s wreckage was strewn across nearly 300 yards of snow-covered cornfields. The death certificate issued by the Cerro Gordo County Coroner noted the clothing Holly was wearing, the presence of a leather suitcase near his body and the following personal effects:

  • Cash $193.00 less $11.65 coroner’sfees = $181.35 2
  • Cuff links, silver 1/2 in. balls having jeweled band
  • Topportion of ball point pen

Notably missing from the list were Holly’s signature eyeglasses, the most distinctive visual legacy of a man who influenced the sound and style of rock and roll immeasurably. Those famous glasses were presumed lost forever until the announcement on February 29, 1980, that they had resurfaced in Mason City, Iowa.

The glasses in question had the appearance of something government issued, but they were, in fact, carefully chosen as part of Holly’s image — not by Holly himself, but by his Lubbock, Texas, optometrist, Dr. J. Davis Armistead. “Buddy was trying to wear the least conspicuous frames he could find,” wrote Dr. Armistead nearly 40 years after writing Holly’s last prescription. “Personally, I was not happy with the frame styles we had been using. I did not think they contributed anything to a distinct personality that a performer needs.” It was while on vacation in Mexico City that Armistead found exactly the frames that he felt Holly needed. He brought back two pair of the heavy plastic Faiosa frames. “Those heavy black frames achieve exactly what we wanted—they became a distinct part of him.” In fact, they became a part of the basic iconography and spirit of rock and roll. Before Buddy Holly, it would have been impossible to imagine a skinny, knock-kneed kid in an Ivy League suit and thick, heavy glasses being considered “cool.” After Buddy Holly, the look and attitude that would later be called “geek chic” became a completely accepted alternative style for an aspiring rock star to embrace.

So how did the famous glasses re-emerge? In the violence of the crash back in February 1959, they were thrown clear of the other wreckage and buried in snow. They were found, along with the Big Bopper’s watch, that same spring, when the melting snow made them visible again. Though they were handed in immediately to the Cerro Gordo County Sherriff’s office, they sat filed away for the next 21 years in a sealed manila envelope marked “rec’d April 7, 1959.” That envelope was opened by Sheriff Jerry Allen on this day in 1980. The glasses were eventually returned to Holly’s widow, and can now be seen in the exhibit at the Buddy Holly Center in Lubbock, Texas.

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