Chame a cavalaria: Cavalarias famosas do mundo antigo

Chame a cavalaria: Cavalarias famosas do mundo antigo

"Chame a Cavalaria" tornou-se um provérbio para reverter à assistência especializada de controle de danos quando as coisas saem do controle. Ainda assim, a citação está embutida na história de uma unidade nobre e freqüentemente de elite originalmente formada para fornecer apoio à infantaria. Antes que o tanque entrasse nos anais da história militar, havia a cavalaria; o cavalo e seu cavaleiro. Como toda nação moderna hoje, os reinos antigos também tinham algum tipo de suporte terrestre móvel, projetado para perfurar as linhas inimigas, mas apenas um punhado de nações tinha a cavalaria mais bem treinada, e suas reputações resistiam ao teste do tempo.

Guerreiro dos citas, segunda parte do século VII e VI aC (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Cavalaria leve dos citas

Os citas (atual Ucrânia) podem não ter sido os inventores originais da guerra assimétrica, mas pode-se argumentar que eles a aperfeiçoaram. Os citas eram antigos guerreiros nômades a cavalo, mencionados pela primeira vez pelos assírios durante o reinado de Sargão II (722 - 705 aC). O que tornava esses cavaleiros tão poderosos era que eles eram criados na sela e usavam um arco muito característico.

A arma escolhida foi o arco composto. Os arcos citas e cimérios eram únicos e reverenciados em todo o mundo antigo por reis, historiadores e um filósofo. O rei Esarhaddon da Assíria tinha um arco cimério, os exércitos babilônios de Nabucodonosor II e Nabonido foram equipados com seus arcos e flechas, e até mesmo o retrato grego de Hércules o mostra armado com um arco cita. O filósofo grego Platão comentou: “Os costumes dos citas prova nosso erro; pois eles não apenas seguram o arco com a mão esquerda e puxam a flecha para eles com a direita, mas usam qualquer uma das mãos para ambos os propósitos ”.

Batalha entre citas e eslavos por Viktor Vasnetsov. (1881) (domínio público)

Quando se examina o estilo de vida cita, pode-se facilmente obter uma compreensão do tipo de guerra que empregavam, em oposição às pessoas mais sedentárias (não migratórias), como as da Mesopotâmia. O cita adotou uma abordagem de guerrilha para a guerra como seu método, não deve ser confundido com terrorismo. O termo "guerra de guerrilha" significa guerra irregular e sua doutrina defende o uso de pequenos bandos para conduzir operações militares de ataque e fuga. Heródoto menciona seu método de guerra quando o rei Dario da Pérsia fez campanha contra eles


16 lugares históricos incríveis no mundo para adicionar à sua lista de desejos

Não faltam lugares históricos no mundo para adicionar à sua lista de desejos, mas quais são os melhores e onde você deve concentrar seu tempo, se houver tantos? Bem, é claro que esta é uma lista subjetiva e se você não tem interesse em culturas e história antigas, pode descobrir que vai a algumas delas e encolhe os ombros diante delas. Alguns são de história mais recente, então não se trata apenas do mundo antigo com pedras e ruínas antigas e eu acho que há alguma diferença aqui para as listas de locais históricos populares que abundam, então espero que gostem. O que estão incluídos aqui são locais que são extremamente importantes para nossa cultura como raça humana e lugares que têm sido fundamentais na mudança de nosso mundo ao longo do tempo e eu pessoalmente acho que são lugares históricos incrivelmente interessantes para visitar também.

Este post contém links afiliados. Clicar neles pode resultar no pagamento de uma comissão para nós se você comprar posteriormente - sem nenhum custo extra para você. Obrigado!

Ainda não consegui marcar todos esses lugares mundialmente famosos, mas já vi alguns deles e tenho planos de marcar muitos mais!

Perdi algum local histórico que você acha que deveria estar nesta lista? Deixe-me saber nos comentários porque estou sempre procurando adicionar mais sites à minha lista de desejos, especialmente se eles estiverem cheios de história! Sem mais delongas e sem uma ordem específica ...


2. Lady Almeria Braddock e Mrs. Elphinstone (1792)

Uma certa Sra. Elphinstone não esperava mais do que uma xícara de chá quando fez uma visita social à casa de Lady Almeria Braddock em Londres em 1792. Mas a visita mudou para um território decididamente pouco feminino quando a anfitriã, evidentemente enfurecida com um comentário casual da Sra. Elphinstone falou sobre sua idade, desafiou seu convidado para um duelo no Hyde Park. Segundo relatos, a Sra. Elphinstone disparou primeiro a pistola, derrubando o chapéu de Lady Braddock e # x2019 no chão. As mulheres então empunharam espadas, e Lady Braddock se vingou ferindo o oponente no braço. O duelo & # x201CPetticoat, & # x201D como veio a ser conhecido, terminou sem mais incidentes quando a Sra. Elphinstone concordou em escrever uma carta de desculpas.


Cavalaria

um braço de combate que usa cavalos de equitação para movimento e ação de combate.

A cavalaria se originou nos países do mundo antigo, nas regiões onde os cavalos eram criados em grande escala. Antes do aparecimento da cavalaria nos exércitos do Egito, China e Índia, carros de guerra puxados por cavalos eram usados. A cavalaria foi usada pela primeira vez como arma de combate pelo Exército Assírio no século IX a.C. e então se espalhou para outros estados escravistas. No Exército Persa, foi o principal braço de combate do século VI a.C. foi dividido em cavalaria pesada (clibana-rii), armado com espadas e lanças e cavalaria leve, armado com arcos e flechas, dardos e lanças. Uma batalha de cavalaria começou com o disparo de flechas e o lançamento de dardos para interromper a formação de combate do inimigo e terminou com um ataque da cavalaria pesada apoiada por arqueiros montados.

A cavalaria parta do terceiro ao primeiro século a.C. foi organizado e usado em combate quase da mesma maneira. A cavalaria dos antigos estados gregos (Esparta e Atenas) era pequena. Mas como havia muitos cavalos no norte da Grécia (na Tessália e na Beócia), Tebas poderia formar uma cavalaria maior. Na primeira metade do século IV a.C. o general tebano Epaminondas desdobrou a cavalaria pela primeira vez em cooperação com a infantaria e habilmente a usou para derrotar o inimigo nas batalhas de Leuctra e Mantinea. Na segunda metade do século IV a.C. uma cavalaria regular foi criada na Macedônia como um braço de combate independente junto com a infantaria. A cavalaria de Alexandre o Grande era bem treinada e tinha grande capacidade de manobra e força de ataque, sendo dividida em cavalaria pesada, média e leve. A cavalaria média era a mais numerosa, mas a cavalaria pesada, que tinha armas poderosas e bons meios de defesa, deu o golpe decisivo. Nas campanhas de Alexandre, o Grande, a cavalaria regular começou a desempenhar um papel decisivo no combate (as batalhas de Granicus, Issus e Gaugamela [Arbela]). No Exército Romano, a cavalaria era um braço auxiliar de combate. Na Segunda Guerra Púnica (218 e ndash aC), Aníbal usou amplamente a cavalaria de primeira classe do Exército Cartaginês para desferir golpes nos flancos do inimigo com um envolvimento completo de sua formação de batalha. Aníbal e a cavalaria rsquos desempenharam um papel decisivo na derrota do Exército Romano no rio Trebbia e em Canas.

Após o estabelecimento do feudalismo na Europa Ocidental nos séculos VIII e IX, a cavalaria cavalheiresca tornou-se a principal força militar do exército feudal. Os cavaleiros estavam armados com espadas e lanças pesadas e protegidos por escudos, elmos e armaduras, que cobriam todo o corpo, desde a segunda metade do século 12 os cavalos de guerra também eram cobertos com armaduras. Os cavaleiros fortemente armados só podiam atacar a uma curta distância e, em uma marcha lenta, o combate era reduzido a duelos entre cavaleiros individuais. A unidade organizacional e tática mais baixa do exército de cavaleiros era o & ldquolance & rdquo, que consistia em um cavaleiro e os homens que o serviam, incluindo o portador da arma, arqueiros montados e a pé, lanceiros e servos & mdasha um total de quatro a dez homens entre 20 e 50 ou mais lanças formaram um & ldquostandard & rdquo (khorugv & rsquo), que consistia em vassalos de um importante senhor feudal. Vários estandartes formavam o exército de cavaleiros (geralmente não mais do que 800 & ndash, 000 cavaleiros). Em comparação com a cavalaria do mundo antigo, a cavalaria havia perdido sua mobilidade e não podia perseguir o inimigo.

No exército do antigo estado russo (séculos IX e X), a cavalaria era representada pelo séquito do príncipe e rsquos, numericamente menor do que a cidade não montada e a milícia da aldeia. Nos séculos 11 e 12, o tamanho da cavalaria foi aumentado para lutar contra os nômades. A cavalaria russa exibiu um alto nível de maestria na Batalha no Gelo de 1242, quando Alexander Nevsky liderou a cavalaria na derrota das forças cavaleirosas alemãs. A batalha de Kulikovo de 1380 foi decidida pelo regimento de cavalaria de emboscada de Dmitrii Donskoi e rsquos. Na guerra dos estados feudais asiáticos, a cavalaria leve mongol-tártara de Genghis Khan e seus sucessores (séculos 13 e 14) exibiu um grau notável de organização e eficiência de combate. Os mongóis eram excelentes cavaleiros e mestres perfeitos no uso do arco e flecha, do sabre e do laço. Eles manobraram habilmente no campo de batalha, usaram retiros e emboscadas falsas e mantiveram fortes reservas para o golpe final.

Com a invenção e desenvolvimento das armas de fogo (no século 14) e o crescente papel da infantaria no final do século 15, a cavalaria finalmente perdeu sua importância. As armas defensivas dos cavaleiros foram gradualmente ficando mais leves e, no século 16, a cavalaria leve portando armas de fogo passou para a linha de frente. Ao mesmo tempo, as táticas de combate de cavalaria mudaram, a profundidade da formação de cavalaria implantada aumentou para oito, dez ou mais fileiras, e o ataque em formação montada e com armas silenciosas foi abandonado em vez das fileiras disparadas do cavalo e subidas em vira da profundidade da formação de batalha. Tudo isso privou a cavalaria de manobrabilidade e capacidade para ataques rápidos.

No final do século 16, um tipo novo e mais leve de cavalaria pesada foi criado, os couraças, que carregavam espadas e pistolas largas e usavam couraças e capacetes. Os dragões, que surgiram ao mesmo tempo, estavam armados com mosquetes e eram originalmente uma infantaria montada. Na Guerra dos Trinta Anos (1618 & ndash), Gustavus II Adolphus reduziu a profundidade da formação de cavalaria desdobrada no Exército Sueco a três fileiras e reviveu as táticas de choque. A cavalaria sueca mais uma vez atacou a cavalo em passo rápido e manobrou no campo de batalha, e os dragões, treinados para a ação a cavalo e a pé, tornaram-se o principal tipo de cavalaria. Nos séculos 17 e 18, os estados da Europa Ocidental tinham três tipos de cavalaria, incluindo cavalaria pesada & mdashthe cuirassiers cavalaria média & mdashthe dragões, carabineiros e granadeiros montados e cavalaria leve & mdashthe hussardos, ulanos e regimentos de cavalaria leve. Na maioria dos estados, a cavalaria representava metade do exército da França, a cavalaria era igual a 1 Vi vezes maior que a infantaria. Até o século 18, a cavalaria dos exércitos da Europa Ocidental (exceto o Exército Sueco) continuou a disparar montada em cavalos e mover-se em passos lentos.

Com a formação do estado russo centralizado na segunda metade do século 15, uma grande cavalaria composta de pequena nobreza foi criada na segunda metade do século 16, esta cavalaria numerada entre 150.000 e 200.000 homens. Na década de 1630, a cavalaria da pequena nobreza começou a ser gradualmente substituída por regimentos de cavalaria organizados da nova forma, dos quais havia 25 em 1681 (regimentos reiter e dragoon). A cavalaria cossaca começou a desempenhar um papel importante no exército russo no século XVI. No decorrer das reformas militares de Pedro I no início do século 18, uma cavalaria regular do tipo dragão foi criada (40 regimentos de dragões, incluindo cinco regimentos de guarnição) pela primeira vez na história, a cavalaria estava armada com artilharia a cavalo (dois, três - armas de libra por regimento). A principal técnica de combate da cavalaria russa era o ataque montado seguido por um ataque com armas silenciosas. Peter I usou a cavalaria amplamente para a ação independente (a batalha em Kalisz em 1706 e o ​​emprego do corpo voador & mdashthe Corps Volant & mdashin 1708). A batalha de Lesnaia (1708) e a batalha de Poltava (1709) estabeleceram padrões elevados para a aplicação de combate da cavalaria. A. D. Menshikov, um associado de Pedro I que foi nomeado comandante da cavalaria russa em 1706, era um líder talentoso da cavalaria.

Na imitação de 1730 dos sistemas austro-prussianos e o entusiasmo excessivo por atirar a cavalo fizeram a cavalaria perder sua habilidade para ações montadas organizadas e ataques com armas silenciosas. Neste período, no Exército Russo, foi criada uma cavalaria pesada (dez regimentos de couraças). Os novos regulamentos de cavalaria introduzidos em 1755 restauraram em grande parte as tradições petrinas do uso de combate da cavalaria. Na Guerra dos Sete Anos (1756 & ndash63), a cavalaria russa provou ser um oponente digno da forte cavalaria prussiana, que havia sido reorganizada por Frederico II. Em seu reinado, a cavalaria, que tinha um status privilegiado, foi recrutada apenas de proprietários de terras prussianos e constituiu de 25 a 35 por cento do exército prussiano. Todos os tipos de cavalaria foram igualmente treinados para ação a cavalo e a pé para aumentar a velocidade do ataque, a formação de três fileiras foi substituída pela formação de duas fileiras desdobrada. A cavalaria prussiana alcançou altas qualidades de combate sob a liderança dos proeminentes generais de cavalaria F. W. von Seydlitz e H. J. von Zieten.

Entre 1760 e 1790, o número de regimentos de couraças pesados ​​no exército russo foi reduzido, o número de regimentos de cavalaria média e leve (carabineiros, granadeiros montados, hussardos e regimentos de cavalos leves) foi aumentado e o treinamento de combate foi melhorado. A aplicação de combate da cavalaria foi melhorada sob a liderança de P. A. Rumiantse e A. V. Suvorov. Em 1774, Rumiantsev introduziu a formação desdobrada de duas fileiras e proibiu o disparo em formação montada. Sob Paulo I (1796 & ndash1801), o tamanho da cavalaria pesada foi aumentado na cavalaria russa. Os regulamentos de 1796 introduziram oficialmente a formação desdobrada de duas fileiras e a coluna de marcha & ldquoby quatro & rdquo, que na verdade já havia sido usada na cavalaria russa.

A cavalaria francesa das guerras napoleônicas era uma força de combate formidável. Foi dividido em cavalaria pesada (cuirassiers), cavalaria média (dragões) e cavalaria leve (hussardos, caçadores montados e ulanos). As grandes unidades táticas eram as brigadas, divisões (compostas por duas brigadas) e, a partir de 1804, corpos de cavalaria. Napoleão dividiu a cavalaria em cavalaria estratégica (reserva) e cavalaria tática, que realizava missões para a infantaria. Em 1812, quatro corpos de cavalaria (cerca de 40.000 homens) da cavalaria de reserva (estratégica) foram formados. A formação desdobrada de duas fileiras e a coluna foram usadas em combate. Grandes colunas foram empregadas para o golpe decisivo. Durante os ataques em massa, a cavalaria geralmente sofria enormes perdas e nem sempre era bem-sucedida (Borodino, Leipzig, Waterloo).

No Exército Russo em 1806 foram criadas divisões combinadas de infantaria e cavalaria, e em 1812 foram introduzidas divisões de cavalaria compostas por três brigadas cada e corpos de cavalaria compostos por duas divisões cada. Além da cavalaria regular, havia também a cavalaria cossaca. Os novos regulamentos de cavalaria de 1812 introduziram formações de marcha de cavalaria que mais tarde se tornaram tradicionais: & ldquoby seis & rdquo & ldquoby três, & rdquo & ldquoby linhas & rdquo (por dois) e & ldquoby um & rdquo a formação de combate foi baseada em duas ou mais linhas, e os esquadrões de cada linha foram colocados em uma formação desdobrada de duas fileiras. Em 1812, toda a cavalaria, incluindo os dragões, lutava apenas a cavalo. Na Guerra Patriótica de 1812, a cavalaria russa forneceu muitos exemplos notáveis ​​de ação eficaz e desempenhou um grande papel na derrota do exército de Napoleão. Depois de 1812, a cavalaria russa recebeu apenas um campo de exercícios e treinamento de desfile, e sua eficiência de combate diminuiu.

Na Guerra da Crimeia (1853 & ndash56) e na guerra da Áustria, Itália e França de 1859, a cavalaria de todos os exércitos foi usada sem levar em consideração o uso de armas de rifle e novas condições de combate, foi ineficaz e sofreu grandes perdas, dando levanta dúvidas sobre o valor da cavalaria como uma arma de combate independente. Mas a Guerra Civil nos EUA (1861 e ndash65) demonstrou de forma convincente que grandes massas de cavalaria poderiam ser efetivamente usadas para ação estratégica em ataques profundos na retaguarda e nas linhas de comunicação do inimigo. Nas guerras subsequentes da segunda metade do século 19, a cavalaria foi ineficaz porque nenhum lugar foi encontrado para ela no combate moderno.

No início da Primeira Guerra Mundial (1914 & ndash18), a cavalaria constituía de 8 a 10 por cento dos exércitos nos estados europeus, era considerada muito importante, mas havia diferentes pontos de vista sobre a aplicação de combate da cavalaria na Alemanha, foi atribuída uma papel operacional e, na França e em outros Estados, um papel meramente tático. Na Rússia, a cavalaria foi concebida como tendo aplicações operacionais e táticas. Em todos os exércitos, a formação montada era considerada o método principal da cavalaria. A cavalaria foi dividida em cavalaria estratégica (exército) e tática (divisional). A cavalaria estratégica era composta por grandes unidades de cavalaria em um nível de divisão (divisões e brigadas destacadas), uma divisão de cavalaria tinha duas ou três brigadas (com dois regimentos por brigada e de quatro a seis esquadrões por regimento) e estava armada com artilharia e metralhadoras. No início da guerra, muitas divisões de cavalaria alemãs e francesas foram fundidas em corpos de cavalaria. Na Rússia, sete corpos de cavalaria foram formados apenas em 1916, antes dessa época as unidades de cavalaria se fundiram em destacamentos temporários. Nas novas condições da Primeira Guerra Mundial, com o grande desenvolvimento de vários tipos de tecnologia militar, os ataques montados tornaram-se muito ineficazes e acarretaram enormes perdas de homens e cavalos. No período de manobras da guerra (na Frente Ocidental até o final de 1914, na Frente Oriental até outubro de 1915), a cavalaria era usada principalmente para cumprir missões operacionais. No período posicional da guerra, as unidades de cavalaria dos partidos beligerantes foram retiradas para a retaguarda e usadas essencialmente como infantaria. Embora a cavalaria russa fosse numericamente grande e bem treinada, não desempenhou nenhum papel substancial na guerra porque o comando russo se recusou a concentrar grandes massas de cavalaria nos principais machados operacionais e porque não tinha comandantes de cavalaria talentosos. Depois da Primeira Guerra Mundial, a mecanização e a motorização levaram a um declínio numérico da cavalaria nos exércitos estrangeiros e, no final dos anos 1930, na maioria dos grandes estados capitalistas, ela foi virtualmente abolida. Na Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939 ^ 5), apenas alguns países mantiveram a cavalaria (Polônia, Hungria, Romênia e Iugoslávia).

A formação da cavalaria soviética começou com o estabelecimento do Exército Vermelho regular em janeiro de 1918. O Exército Vermelho Operário e Camponês assumiu apenas três regimentos de cavalaria do antigo Exército Russo desmobilizado. A formação da cavalaria foi uma questão muito difícil. A maioria dos cossacos estava no campo da Guarda Branca na Ucrânia e nas regiões sul e sudeste da Rússia, que forneceram a maior parte dos cavaleiros e cavalos de montaria, foram ocupados pelos intervencionistas ou mantidos pela Guarda Branca e havia uma escassez de equipamento de cavalaria, armas e comandantes experientes.

A primeira grande unidade de cavalaria regular do Exército Vermelho foi a Divisão de Cavalaria de Moscou, formada em agosto de 1918 no Distrito Militar de Moscou, foi nomeada a Primeira Divisão de Cavalaria em março de 1919. Além disso, unidades de cavalaria em nível de divisão e regimentos de cavalaria individuais e destacamentos foram criados na frente de destacamentos partidários e unidades de cavalaria tática. A 1ª Divisão de Cavalaria composta foi formada no distrito de Don em novembro de 1918 (renomeada para 4ª Divisão de Cavalaria em março de 1919). Em janeiro de 1919, a cavalaria regular incorporou a 1ª Divisão de Cavalaria dos partidários de Stavropol & rsquo, que foi formada em dezembro de 1918 (rebatizada de 6ª Divisão de Cavalaria em março de 1919). Em meados de 1919, o Exército Vermelho tinha cinco divisões de cavalaria (a 1ª, 4ª, 6ª, 3ª turquestão e a 7ª divisões) cada divisão tinha seis regimentos com quatro esquadrões em cada um. Na segunda metade de 1919, as divisões individuais de cavalaria começaram a ser consolidadas em corpos de cavalaria, criando assim as condições para um emprego concentrado da cavalaria estratégica (do exército). Em junho de 1919, as 4ª e 6ª divisões de Cavalaria foram consolidadas no Primeiro Corpo de Cavalaria Cavalo sob o comando de SM Budennyi, e em setembro de 1919 o Corpo de Cavalaria Composto foi formado sob o comando de BM Dumenko, composto pelo 1º Partidário, o 2º Montanhista e as 3ª brigadas de cavalaria Don.

A ação de combate em 1919 na Frente Sul contra Denikin, que tinha grandes massas de cavalaria a cavalo, tornou necessária a criação de uma formação estratégica mais poderosa e organização operacional da cavalaria que não fosse inferior ao inimigo & rsquos. Em novembro de 1919, o Primeiro Corpo de Cavalaria Cavalo foi expandido para o Primeiro Exército de Cavalaria Cavalo sob o comando de S. M. Budennyi, o exército incluiu o 4º, 6º e 11º e a partir de abril de 1920 também as 14ª divisões de Cavalaria. No final de 1919, a força efetiva de combate do Exército Vermelho incluía um total de 15 divisões de cavalaria. A essa altura, a cavalaria soviética igualava-se à cavalaria inimiga em força. As unidades de cavalaria do Exército Vermelho em nível de divisão e superiores desempenharam um papel proeminente nas operações para derrotar os exércitos Denikin & rsquos e Kolchak & rsquos do final de 1919 ao início de 1920, bem como naquelas contra as tropas da burguesia e latifundiários poloneses.

À medida que a Guarda Branca e os intervencionistas estavam sendo expulsos do país, a possibilidade de formar uma cavalaria estratégica aumentou muito, e em 1920 dez divisões de cavalaria foram novamente formadas e estabelecidas com base nas brigadas de cavalaria, essas divisões tornaram-se parte do corpo sob o comando de GD Gai, ND Kashirin, VM Primakov e outros. O Segundo Exército de Cavalaria Montada foi formado em julho de 1920 sob o comando de OI Gorodovikov (a partir de setembro, FK Mironov) e era composto pelas 2ª Blinov, 16ª, 20ª e 21ª Divisões de Cavalaria e desempenhou um grande papel na derrota das tropas Wrangel e rsquos em Tavriia do Norte e a Crimeia. Os exércitos de cavalaria de cavalos, compostos por divisões de cavalaria, tinham metralhadoras montadas em veículos puxados por cavalos (tachanka), artilharia, destacamentos de carros blindados, aviação e trens blindados de duas ou três divisões de rifle foram temporariamente anexados a eles. No final de 1920, a cavalaria estratégica era composta por 27 divisões de cavalaria, sem contar as brigadas de cavalaria destacadas.

A importância do combate da cavalaria aumentou muito durante a Guerra Civil e a intervenção militar (1918 e ndash20). Isso foi provocado pela quantidade de manobras necessárias na guerra e porque os teatros de operação eram vastos com longas frentes onde a densidade de tropas era insuficiente. Nessas condições, a cavalaria aproveitou ao máximo sua mobilidade e o elemento surpresa. O principal método de cumprir missões de combate tático era a ação de cavalaria em formação montada. Nas operações no norte do Cáucaso em fevereiro e março de 1920, o tamanho da cavalaria soviética era 50% do tamanho da infantaria, e a cavalaria dos brancos alcançava 110% do tamanho da infantaria. Nas operações contra as tropas Wrangel & rsquos em outubro e novembro de 1920, a cavalaria representava 33% das tropas soviéticas e 50% das tropas Wrangel & rsquos. No eixo das investidas principais, as forças de cavalaria eram iguais. A concentração de grandes forças de cavalaria nos principais eixos operacionais pelos dois lados beligerantes transformou algumas operações da Guerra Civil em batalhas de massas de cavalaria apoiadas pela infantaria. Mais uma vez na história, ataques montados em massa pela cavalaria seriam usados ​​(as batalhas em Egorlykskaia em fevereiro de 1920, em Nikopol & rsquo em agosto e em Genichesk em outubro de 1920), bem como ataques profundos ao longo da retaguarda inimiga. Após a Guerra Civil, a cavalaria soviética desempenhou um grande papel na luta contra o Basmachi na Ásia Central e contra o banditismo na Ucrânia e no norte do Cáucaso.

No período da construção socialista, a cavalaria soviética foi armada com novo material de combate. A cavalaria foi projetada como um braço de combate móvel para ação em massa à disposição do comando de frente. Mas a experiência de combate do início da Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939 e ndash) e o uso de grandes forças de tanques e da aviação fizeram o comando soviético mudar suas opiniões sobre o uso de combate da cavalaria e reduzi-lo numericamente. O número de divisões de cavalaria foi reduzido de 32 em 1939 para 13 em 1941 (incluindo quatro divisões de cavalaria de montanha).

No início da Grande Guerra Patriótica (1941 e ndash45), grandes unidades de cavalaria posicionadas nas fronteiras sudoeste e oeste (um total de sete divisões) travaram combate enquanto cobriam a retirada das unidades de armas combinadas. O comando soviético começou a formar novas divisões de cavalaria no verão de 1941, e 83 divisões de cavalaria leve foram criadas adicionalmente no final de 1941. Nos primeiros meses da guerra, graves deficiências tornaram-se aparentes no uso de combate da cavalaria: o princípio de seu emprego em massa foi violado e a cavalaria foi freqüentemente usada para ataques a linhas fortemente fortificadas e áreas povoadas. Em dezembro de 1941, uma diretriz do Quartel-General Supremo ordenou a consolidação das divisões de cavalaria em corpos de cavalaria e proibiu o desmembramento de corpos de cavalaria subordinados a um comando de frente e não a um comando do exército, bem como aqueles que receberam a missão (em conjunto com tanques e tropas mecanizadas) para explorar o sucesso de um avanço da defesa, para perseguir um inimigo em retirada e para combater suas reservas operacionais. Nas operações defensivas, a cavalaria formava a reserva manobrável das frentes.

Quinze divisões de cavalaria lutaram na batalha de Moscou de 1941 ^ 2 nas ferozes batalhas em Moscou General P. A. Belov & rsquos Primeiro Corpo de Cavalaria de Guardas e General L. M. Dovator & rsquos Segundo Guards Cavalry Corps ganharam distinção especial. Entre as unidades que lutaram na batalha de Stalingrado de 1942 & ndash estavam III Corpo de Cavalaria de Guardas do General IA Pliev (em 17 de dezembro de 1942, General NS Oslikovskii), General Borisov & rsquos VIII (posteriormente VII Guardas) Corpo de Cavalaria e General TT Shapkin & rsquos IV Corpo de Cavalaria.

Quando o Exército Soviético passou a amplas ações ofensivas em 1943, a cavalaria foi reorganizada, um comandante da cavalaria foi nomeado (Marechal da União Soviética SM Budennyi), um estado-maior de cavalaria foi formado (Chefe do Estado-Maior General VT Obu-khov, então General PS Karpachev) as divisões leves foram abolidas, as divisões foram aumentadas e seu poder de fogo aumentado, e as armas antitanque do corpo de cavalaria foram reforçadas. Após a reorganização, o Exército Soviético tinha oito corpos de cavalaria, três divisões em um corpo, incluindo sete corpos de guardas no exército no campo e três divisões de cavalaria destacadas (na Trans-baikalia e no Extremo Oriente). Um corpo de cavalaria estava estacionado no Irã.

Em 1943, a cavalaria desempenhou um papel importante na batalha pelo Cáucaso (General N. Ia. Kirichenko & rsquos IV Guards Kuban Cavalry Corps e General AG Selivanov & rsquos V Guards Don Cavalry Corps), na batalha de Kursk de 1943, e na libertação de a margem esquerda da Ucrânia (General VV Kriukov & rsquos II Corpo de Cavalaria da Guarda). O VII Corpo de Cavalaria de Guardas lutou na batalha pelo Dnieper no final de setembro, cruzou o rio Dnieper com força perto de Chernigov e tomou uma base de operações na margem oposta.

Enquanto o corpo de cavalaria reforçado era usado em ofensivas para a exploração de um sucesso no avanço de uma defesa, em 1943 o corpo de cavalaria começou a ser consolidado em grupos temporários de cavalaria mecanizada (KMG) compostos de um ou dois corpos de cavalaria e um tanque ou corpos mecanizados eram usados ​​para os mesmos fins. Ações altamente eficazes do KMG incluem a do General Kirichenko na Operação Ofensiva de Donbas de 1943, do General Pliev na operação Bereznegovatoe-Snigirevka de 1944 e na Operação Odessa de 1944, dos generais Oslikovskii e Pliev na exploração do sucesso no Operação Bielo-russa de 1944, do General VKBaranov na Operação L & rsquovov-Sandomir de 1944, e do General SI Gorshkov na Operação Ia & secty-Kishenev de 1944. O KMG Anorgânico formado no final de 1944 sob o comando do General Pliev (posteriormente a Primeira Guarda KMG ) serviu no combate pela libertação da Romênia e da Hungria. A ação de combate do KMG soviético-mongol na Frente Transbaikal em agosto de 1945 contribuiu para a derrota do Exército Kwantung japonês no Extremo Oriente.

O poder de fogo das tropas, que aumentou durante a Grande Guerra Patriótica, limitou o uso tático da cavalaria ao combate de infantaria. A cavalaria normalmente entrava em contato com o inimigo em formação montada ao atingir a linha previamente planejada, a unidade de cavalaria desmontava e se posicionava em formação de batalha. Quando as condições eram favoráveis, a cavalaria às vezes usava ataques montados, especialmente se o inimigo não tivesse conseguido consolidar sua posição ou organizar um sistema de fogo.

Para reduzir o perigo de ataque da aviação inimiga, as unidades de cavalaria marcharam à noite, em tempestades de neve ou nevoeiro, e manobraram para fora das estradas. O posto de unidade de guardas foi conferido a todos os corpos de cavalaria do exército no campo por seu alto nível de habilidade de combate, bravura e ousadia. O título de Herói da União Soviética foi conferido a muitos cavaleiros, e ordens e medalhas foram concedidas a dezenas de milhares deles.

Após a Grande Guerra Patriótica, a cavalaria foi grandemente reduzida em tamanho. Em meados da década de 1950, devido ao desenvolvimento das armas de destruição em massa e da motorização total do exército, a cavalaria deixou de existir como arma de combate e as unidades de cavalaria foram dissolvidas.


Cavalaria

um braço de combate que usa cavalos de equitação para movimento e ação de combate.

A cavalaria se originou nos países do mundo antigo, nas regiões onde os cavalos eram criados em grande escala. Antes do aparecimento da cavalaria nos exércitos do Egito, China e Índia, carros de guerra puxados por cavalos eram usados. A cavalaria foi usada pela primeira vez como arma de combate pelo Exército Assírio no século IX a.C. and then spread to other slaveholding states. In the Persian Army it was the main combat arm from the sixth century B.C it was divided into heavy cavalry (clibana-rii), armed with swords and pikes, and light cavalry, armed with bows and arrows, javelins, and spears. A cavalry battle began with the shooting of arrows and the throwing of javelins to break up the combat formation of the enemy and ended with an attack by the heavy cavalry supported by mounted archers.

The Parthian cavalry in the third to first century B.C. was organized and used in combat in roughly the same way. The cavalry of the ancient Greek states (Sparta and Athens) was small. But since there were many horses in northern Greece (in Thessaly and Boeotia), Thebes could form a larger cavalry. In the first half of the fourth century B.C. the Theban general Epaminondas deployed cavalry for the first time in cooperation with infantry and skillfully used it to accomplish the defeat of the enemy in the battles of Leuctra and Mantinea. In the second half of the fourth century B.C. a regular cavalry was created in Macedonia as an independent combat arm along with the infantry. The cavalry of Alexander the Great was well trained and had great maneuverability and striking power it was divided into heavy, medium, and light cavalry. The medium cavalry was the most numerous, but the heavy cavalry, which had mighty weapons and good means of defense, struck the decisive blow. In the campaigns of Alexander the Great the regular cavalry began playing a decisive role in combat (the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela [Arbela]). In the Roman Army the cavalry was an auxiliary combat arm. In the Second Punic War (218&ndash B.C.), Hannibal widely used the first-class cavalry of the Carthaginian Army to strike blows at the flanks of the enemy with a complete envelopment of his battle formation Hannibal&rsquos cavalry played a decisive role in defeating the Roman Army on the Trebbia River and at Cannae.

After the establishment of feudalism in Western Europe in the eighth and ninth centuries, the knightly cavalry became the chief military force of the feudal army. The knights were armed with swords and heavy lances and protected by shields, helmets, and armor, which covered the entire body from the second half of the 12th century the war horses were also covered with armor. The heavily armed knights could attack only at a short distance and at a slow gait combat was reduced to duels between individual horsemen. The lowest organizational and tactical unit of the knightly army was the &ldquolance,&rdquo which consisted of one knight and the men serving him, including the weapon bearer, archers mounted and on foot, lancers, and servants&mdasha total of from four to ten men between 20 and 50 or more lances formed a &ldquostandard&rdquo (khorugv&rsquo), which consisted of vassals of an important feudal lord. Several standards formed the knightly army (usually not more than 800&ndash, 000 knights). In comparison with the cavalry of be ancient world the knightly cavalry had lost its mobility and could not pursue the enemy.

In the army of the ancient Russian state (ninth and tenth centuries) the cavalry was represented by the prince&rsquos retinue, which was numerically smaller than the unmounted city and village militia. In the 11th and 12th centuries the size of the cavalry was increased to fight the nomads. The Russian cavalry exhibited a high level of mastery in the Battle on the Ice of 1242, when Alexander Nevsky led the cavalry in the rout of the German knightly forces. The battle of Kulikovo of 1380 was decided by Dmitrii Donskoi&rsquos ambush cavalry regiment. In the war of the Asian feudal states the Mongol-Tatar light cavalry of Genghis Khan and his successors (13th and 14th centuries) displayed a remarkable degree of organization and combat efficiency. The Mongols were excellent horsemen and perfect masters in the use of the bow and arrow, the saber, and the lasso. They skillfully maneuvered on the battlefield, used faked retreats and ambushes, and kept strong reserves for the final thrust.

With the invention and development of firearms (in the 14th century) and the increasing role of the infantry in the late 15th century, the knightly cavalry finally lost its importance. The defensive weapons of the horsemen were gradually made lighter, and in the 16th century light cavalry carrying firearms moved to the forefront. At the same time the tactics of cavalry combat changed the depth of the deployed cavalry formation increased to eight, ten, or more ranks, and the attack in mounted formation and with silent weapons was abandoned instead the ranks fired from the horse and moved up in turns from the depth of the battle formation. All this deprived the cavalry of maneuverability and capability for rapid strikes.

In the late 16th century a new and lighter type of heavy cavalry was created, the cuirassiers, who carried broad swords and pistols and wore cuirasses and helmets. The dragoons, which appeared at the same time, were armed with muskets and were originally a mounted infantry. In the Thirty Years&rsquo War (1618&ndash), Gustavus II Adolphus reduced the depth of the deployed cavalry formation in the Swedish Army to three ranks and revived shock tactics. The Swedish cavalry once more attacked on horse at a rapid gait and maneuvered on the battlefield, and the dragoons, trained for action on horse and on foot, became the main type of cavalry. In the 17th and 18th centuries the Western European states had three types of cavalry, including heavy cavalry&mdashthe cuirassiers medium cavalry&mdashthe dragoons, carabineers, and mounted grenadiers and light cavalry&mdashthe hussars, uhlans, and light cavalry regiments. In most states the cavalry made up one-half of the army in France the cavalry was even 1 Vi times larger than the infantry. Until the 18th century the cavalry of Western European armies (except for the Swedish Army) continued to fire from horseback and move at a slow gait.

With the formation of the centralized Russian state in the second half of the 15th century, a large cavalry composed of landed gentry was created in the second half of the 16th century this cavalry numbered between 150, 000 and 200, 000 men. In the 1630&rsquos the gentry cavalry began to be gradually replaced by cavalry regiments organized in the new way, of which there were 25 in 1681 (reiter and dragoon regiments). The cossack cavalry began to play an important role in the Russian Army in the 16th century. In the course of the military reforms of Peter I in the early 18th century a regular dragoon-type cavalry was created (40 dragoon regiments, including five garrison regiments) for the first time in history the cavalry was armed with horse artillery (two three-pound guns per regiment). The chief combat technique of the Russian cavalry was the mounted attack followed by a strike with silent weapons. Peter I used the cavalry widely for independent action (the battle at Kalisz in 1706 and the employment of the flying corps&mdashthe corps volant &mdashin 1708). The battle at Lesnaia (1708) and the battle at Poltava (1709) set high standards for the combat application of the cavalry. A. D. Menshikov, an associate of Peter I who was appointed commander of the Russian cavalry in 1706, was a talented leader of the cavalry.

In the 1730&rsquos imitation of the Austro-Prussian systems and excessive enthusiasm for firing from horseback made the cavalry lose its ability for organized mounted action and for strikes with silent weapons. In this period in the Russian Army a heavy cavalry was created (ten cuirassier regiments). The new cavalry regulations introduced in 1755 restored to a large extent the Petrine traditions of the combat use of the cavalry. In the Seven Years&rsquo War (1756&ndash63) the Russian cavalry proved a worthy opponent of the strong Prussian cavalry, which had been reorganized by Frederick II. In his reign the cavalry, which had a privileged status, was recruited only from Prussian landholders and constituted from 25 to 35 percent of the Prussian Army. All types of cavalry were equally trained for action on horse and on foot to increase the speed of the attack the three-rank-formation was replaced by the two-rank deployed formation. The Prussian cavalry attained high combat qualities under the leadership of the prominent cavalry generals F. W. von Seydlitz and H. J. von Zieten.

Between 1760 and 1790 the number of heavy cuirassier regiments in the Russian Army was reduced, the number of medium and light cavalry regiments (carabineer, mounted grenadier, hussar, and light horse regiments) was increased, and combat training was improved. The combat application of the cavalry was improved under the leadership of P. A. Rumiantse and A. V. Suvorov. In 1774, Rumiantsev introduced the two-rank deployed formation and prohibited firing in mounted formation. Under Paul I (1796&ndash1801) the size of the heavy cavalry was increased in the Russian cavalry. The regulations of 1796 officially introduced the two-rank deployed formation and the march column &ldquoby four,&rdquo which had actually been used already in the Russian cavalry.

The French cavalry of the Napoleonic wars was a formidable fighting force. It was divided into the heavy cavalry (cuirassiers), medium cavalry (dragoons), and light cavalry (hussars, mounted chasseurs, and uhlans). The large tactical units were the brigades, divisions (composed of two brigades), and, from 1804, cavalry corps. Napoleon divided the cavalry into strategic (reserve) cavalry and tactical cavalry, which carried out missions for the infantry. In 1812 four cavalry corps (about 40, 000 men) of the reserve (strategic) cavalry were formed. The two-rank deployed formation and the column were used in combat. Big columns were employed for the decisive strike. During massed attacks the cavalry usually suffered enormous losses and was not always successful (Borodino, Leipzig, Waterloo).

In the Russian Army in 1806 combined infantry and cavalry divisions were created, and in 1812 there were introduced cavalry divisions composed of three brigades each and cavalry corps composed of two divisions each. Besides the regular cavalry there was also the cossack cavalry. The new cavalry regulations of 1812 introduced cavalry march formations that later became traditional: &ldquoby six&rdquo &ldquoby three,&rdquo &ldquoby rows&rdquo (by two), and &ldquoby one&rdquo the combat formation was based on two or more lines, and the squadrons of each line were placed in a two-rank deployed formation. In 1812 the whole cavalry, including the dragoons, fought only on horse. In the Patriotic War of 1812 the Russian cavalry furnished many outstanding examples of effective action and played a great role in the defeat of Napoleon&rsquos army. After 1812 the Russian cavalry received only a drill field and parade training, and its combat efficiency declined.

In the Crimean War (1853&ndash56) and in the war of Austria, Italy, and France of 1859 the cavalry of all the armies was used without taking into consideration the use of rifled weapons and new combat conditions it was ineffective and suffered great losses, giving rise to doubts concerning the value of the cavalry as an independent combat arm. But the Civil War in the USA (1861&ndash65) convincingly demonstrated that large masses of cavalry could be effectively used for strategic action in deep raids at the rear and over the communication lines of the enemy. In the subsequent wars of the second half of the 19th century the cavalry was ineffective because no place had been found for it in modern combat.

By the beginning of World War I (1914&ndash18) the cavalry made up from 8 to 10 percent of the armies in the European states it was considered very important, but there were different views on the combat application of the cavalry in Germany it was assigned an operational role and in France and other states, a merely tactical role. In Russia the cavalry was envisioned as having operational and tactical applications. In all armies the mounted formation was considered the chief method of the cavalry. The cavalry was divided into strategic (army) and tactical (divisional) cavalry. Strategic cavalry was composed of large cavalry units on a division level (divisions and detached brigades) a cavalry division had two or three brigades (with two regiments per brigade and from four to six squadrons per regiment) it was armed with artillery and machine guns. In the beginning of the war many German and French cavalry divisions were merged into cavalry corps. In Russia seven cavalry corps were formed only in 1916 before that time cavalry units were merged into temporary detachments. In the new conditions of World War I, with the great development of various types of military technology, mounted attacks became very ineffective and entailed enormous losses of men and horses. In the maneuvering period of the war (on the Western Front until late 1914, on the Eastern Front until October 1915) the cavalry was used mainly to fulfill operational missions. In the positional period of the war the cavalry units of the belligerent parties were withdrawn to the rear and used essentially as infantry. Although the Russian cavalry was numerically large and well trained, it did not play any substantial role in the war because the Russian command refused to concentrate large cavalry masses on the major operational axes and because it had no gifted cavalry commanders. After World War I mechanization and motorization led to a numerical decline of the cavalry in foreign armies, and by the late 1930&rsquos in most of the big capitalist states it was virtually abolished. By World War II (1939^5) only a few countries retained the cavalry (Poland, Hungary, Rumania, and Yugoslavia).

The formation of the Soviet cavalry began with the establishment of the regular Red Army in January 1918. The Workers&rsquo and Peasants&rsquo Red Army took over only three cavalry regiments from the demobilized old Russian Army. The formation of the cavalry was a very difficult matter. The majority of the cossacks were in the White Guard camp the Ukraine and the southern and southeastern regions of Russia, which had supplied the bulk of cavalrymen and riding horses, were occupied by the interventionists or held by the White Guard and there was a shortage of horse cavalry equipment, weapons, and experienced commanders.

The first large regular cavalry unit of the Red Army was the Moscow Cavalry Division formed in August 1918 in the Moscow Military District, it was named the First Cavalry Division in March 1919. In addition, cavalry units on a division level and individual horse cavalry regiments and detachments were created at the front from partisan detachments and units of tactical cavalry. The 1st Composite Cavalry Division was formed in the Don District in November 1918 (renamed the 4th Cavalry Division in March 1919). In January 1919 the regular cavalry incorporated the 1st Cavalry Division of the Stavropol&rsquo partisans, which was formed in December 1918 (renamed the 6th Cavalry Division in March 1919). By the middle of 1919 the Red Army had five cavalry divisions (the 1st, 4th, 6th, 3rd Turkestan, and the 7th divisions) each division had six regiments with four squadrons in each. In the latter half of the 1919 individual cavalry divisions began to be consolidated into cavalry corps, thereby creating conditions for a concentrated employment of the strategic (army) cavalry. In June 1919 the 4th and 6th Cavalry divisions were consolidated into the First Horse Cavalry Corps under the command of S. M. Budennyi, and in September 1919 the Composite Cavalry Corps was formed under the command of B. M. Dumenko, composed of the 1st Partisan, the 2nd Mountaineer, and the 3rd Don Cavalry brigades.

The combat action in 1919 on the Southern Front against Denikin, who had large masses of horse cavalry, made it necessary to create a more powerful strategic formation and operational organization of the cavalry that would not be inferior to the enemy&rsquos. In November 1919 the First Horse Cavalry Corps was expanded into the First Horse Cavalry Army under the command of S. M. Budennyi the army included the 4th, 6th, and 11th and from April 1920 also the 14th Cavalry divisions. By late 1919 the effective strength for combat of the Red Army included a total of 15 cavalry divisions. By this time the Soviet cavalry equaled the enemy&rsquos cavalry in strength. The Red Army cavalry units on division level and higher played a prominent role in the operations to defeat Denikin&rsquos and Kolchak&rsquos armies from late 1919 to early 1920, as well as in those against the troops of bourgeois and landlord Poland.

As the White Guard and interventionists were being driven out of the country, the possibility of forming a strategic cavalry greatly increased, and in 1920 ten cavalry divisions were again formed and established on the basis of cavalry brigades these divisions became part of corps under the command of G. D. Gai, N. D. Kashirin, V. M. Primakov, and others. The Second Horse Cavalry Army was formed in July 1920 under the command of O. I. Gorodovikov (from September, F. K. Mironov), and was composed of the 2nd Blinov, 16th, 20th, and 21st Cavalry divisions it played a great role in defeating Wrangel&rsquos troops in Northern Tavriia and the Crimea. The horse cavalry armies, composed of cavalry divisions, had machine guns mounted on horse-drawn vehicles (tachanka), artillery, armored car detachments, aviation, and armored trains two or three rifle divisions were temporarily attached to them. By late 1920 the strategic cavalry was made up of 27 cavalry divisions, not counting detached cavalry brigades.

The combat importance of the cavalry greatly increased during the Civil War and military intervention (1918&ndash20). This was brought about because of the amount of maneuvering necessary in the war and because the theaters of operation were vast with long fronts where the density of troops was insufficient. Under these conditions the cavalry took full advantage of its mobility and the element of surprise. The main method of fulfilling tactical combat missions was cavalry action in mounted formation. In the operations in the Northern Caucasus in February and March 1920 the size of the Soviet cavalry was 50 percent of the size of the infantry, and the cavalry of the Whites reached 110 percent of the size of the infantry. In the operations against Wrangel&rsquos troops in October and November 1920 the cavalry made up 33 percent of Soviet troops and 50 percent of Wrangel&rsquos troops. On the axis of the main thrusts the cavalry forces were equal. The concentration of large cavalry forces on the major operational axes by the two belligerent sides turned some operations of the Civil War into battles of masses of cavalry supported by the infantry. Once again in history mass mounted attacks by cavalry would be used (the battles at Egorlykskaia in February 1920, at Nikopol&rsquo in August, and at Genichesk in October 1920), as well as deep raids along the enemy rear. After the Civil War the Soviet cavalry played a great role in the struggle against the Basmachi in Middle Asia and against banditry in the Ukraine and the Northern Caucasus.

In the period of socialist construction the Soviet cavalry was armed with new combat materiel. The cavalry was designed as a mobile combat arm for mass action at the disposal of the front command. But the combat experience of early World War II (1939&ndash) and the use of large tank forces and aviation made the Soviet command change its opinions concerning the combat use of the cavalry and reduce it numerically. The number of cavalry divisions was reduced from 32 in 1939 to 13 in 1941 (including four mountain cavalry divisions).

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War (1941&ndash45) large cavalry units deployed at the southwestern and western borders (a total of seven divisions) waged combat while covering the retreat of the combined arms units. The Soviet command began forming new cavalry divisions in the summer of 1941, and 83 light cavalry divisions were additionally set up in late 1941. In the first few months of the war serious shortcomings became apparent in the combat use of the cavalry: the principle of its employment in mass was violated, and the cavalry was often used for attacks on strongly fortified lines and populated areas. In December 1941 a directive of the Supreme Headquarters ordered the consolidation of cavalry divisions into cavalry corps and prohibited the breaking up of cavalry corps that were subordinate to a front command and not an army command, as well as those that were given the mission (jointly with tank and mechanized troops) to exploit the success of a breakthrough of the defense, to pursue a retreating enemy, and to combat its operational reserves. In defensive operations the cavalry formed the maneuverable reserve of the fronts.

Fifteen cavalry divisions fought in the battle of Moscow of 1941^2 in the fierce battles at Moscow General P. A. Belov&rsquos First Guards Cavalry Corps and General L. M. Dovator&rsquos Second Guards Cavalry Corps won special distinction. Among the units that fought in the battle of Stalingrad of 1942&ndash were III Guards Cavalry Corps of General I. A. Pliev (from Dec. 17, 1942, General N. S. Oslikovskii), General Borisov&rsquos VIII (later the VII Guards) Cavalry Corps, and General T. T. Shapkin&rsquos IV Cavalry Corps.

When the Soviet Army passed to broad offensive actions in 1943, the cavalry was reorganized a commander of the cavalry was appointed (Marshal of the Soviet Union S. M. Budennyi), a cavalry staff was formed (Chief of Staff General V. T. Obu-khov, then General P. S. Karpachev) light divisions were abolished, divisions were enlarged and their firepower increased, and the antitank weapons of the cavalry corps were reinforced. After the reorganization the Soviet Army had eight cavalry corps, three divisions to a corps, including seven guards corps in the army in the field, and three detached cavalry divisions (in Trans-baikalia and in the Far East). One cavalry corps was stationed in Iran.

In 1943 the cavalry played an important role in the battle for the Caucasus (General N. Ia. Kirichenko&rsquos IV Guards Kuban Cavalry Corps and General A. G. Selivanov&rsquos V Guards Don Cavalry Corps), in the battle of Kursk of 1943, and in the liberation of the Left-bank Ukraine (General V. V. Kriukov&rsquos II Guards Cavalry Corps). The VII Guards Cavalry Corps fought in the battle for the Dnieper in late September it crossed the Dnieper River in force near Chernigov and seized a base of operations on the opposite bank.

While the reinforced cavalry corps were used in offensives for the exploitation of a success in the breakthrough of a defense, in 1943 cavalry corps began to be consolidated into temporary horse cavalry-mechanized groups (KMG) composed of one or two cavalry corps and one tank or mechanized corps they were used for the same purposes. Highly effective actions of the KMG include that of General Kirichenko in the Donbas Offensive Operation of 1943, of General Pliev in the Bereznegovatoe-Snigirevka operation of 1944 and in the Odessa Operation of 1944, of Generals Oslikovskii and Pliev in the exploitation of success in the Byelorussian Operation of 1944, of General V. K.Baranov in the L&rsquovov-Sandomir Operation of 1944, and of General S. I. Gorshkov in the Ia§y-Kishenev Operation of 1944. Anorganic KMG formed in late 1944 under the command of General Pliev (subsequently the 1st Guard KMG) served in combat for the liberation of Rumania and Hungary. The combat action of the Soviet-Mongolian KMG on the Transbaikal Front in August 1945 contributed to the defeat of the Japanese Kwantung Army in the Far East.

The firepower of the troops, which increased during the Great Patriotic War, limited the tactical use of the cavalry to infantry combat. The cavalry usually made contact with the enemy in mounted formation upon reaching the previously planned line, the cavalry unit would dismount and deploy in battle formation. When conditons were favorable the cavalry sometimes used mounted attacks, especially if the enemy had not managed to consolidate its position or organize a system of fire.

To reduce the danger of attack by enemy aviation, cavalry units marched at night, in snowstorms or in fog, and maneuvered off the roads. The rank of guards unit was conferred on all cavalry corps of the army in the field for their high level of combat skill, bravery, and daring. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was conferred on many cavalrymen, and orders and medals were awarded to tens of thousands of them.

After the Great Patriotic War the cavalry was greatly reduced in size. In the mid-1950&rsquos, because of the development of weapons of mass destruction and of the total motorization of the army, the cavalry ceased to exist as a combat arm and the cavalry units were disbanded.


This is the most famous Macedonian Army tactic that made them win every single war.

The Anvil would be formed by the Foot Companions who engaged the enemy all from one side. Then the Hammer would come into play. The Hammer was formed by the Cavalaria.

While the enemy was held in place by the Anvil, the cavalry would swing around and attack in the middle. The advantage of this tactic is to rapidly surround the enemy and make them fight from two directions at once. The success of the Macedonians was always obvious.


Famous Horses

The National Museum of Natural History often receives requests for information on famous horses which are believed to be part of the Smithsonian's research collection or on display in the exhibit areas. Several of the horses listed estão part of the Museum's collection The rest are displayed or stored at other institutions. The following facts have been compiled from the files of the Division of Mammals of the Museum's Department of Systematic Biology, Vertebrate Zoology Section, personal correspondence, and accession and catalogue records.

Lexington
Accession No. 121040
Catalogue No. 16020 (entry in cat., Nov. 7, 1878)

The famous race horse, Lexington, was born in 1850, stood 15 hands (63 inches), 3 inches high, and on April 2, 1855, set a record at the Metaire Course in New Orleans by running 4 miles in 7 minutes, 19 3/4 seconds. Perhaps his greatest fame was as sire to numerous brood mares and successful racers, one of whom was Preakness, namesake of the classic race at Pimlico.

Lexington died July 1, 1875, at Woodburn Farm, Woodford County, Kentucky and in keeping with his status, was buried in a coffin in front of the stables housing his harem. Finally, in 1878, his owner, A.J. Alexander, through the auspices of Dr. J.M. Toner, donated the horse's bones to the United States National Museum. Professor N.A. Ward of Rochester, New York, was asked by the Museum to supervise the disinterment and prepare the skeleton for exhibit. Currently, the articulated skeleton can be seen on display in at the International Museum of the Horse in Lexington, Kentucky.

Winchester
Accession No. 69413
Catalogue No. 32870

General Philip H. Sheridan's horse during most of the Civil War, Winchester was mounted and presented to the Smithsonian in 1923 by the Military Service Institution, Governor's Island, New York. The horse's name, originally "Rienzi," was changed to Winchester after carrying Sheridan on his famous ride from Winchester, Virginia to Cedar Creek, Virginia in time to rally his troops and turn almost-certain defeat into victory.

Kidron
Accession No. 164991
Catalogue No. 270900

Kidron became famous as General of the Armies John J. ("Black Jack") Pershing's horse. Historic photographs show Pershing riding Kidron triumphantly through the Victory Arch in New York City at the end of World War I.

The horse died October 10, 1942, in Front Royal, Virginia. Hoping to have the horse mounted, the War Department, Front Royal Quartermaster Depot, Remount of Front Royal, Virginia, turned over the remains to the U.S. National Museum. However, because of Kidron's age at the time of his death and because the body had decomposed rapidly due to hot weather, taxidermists were unable to mount the skin.

On March 31, 1943, the Office of the Registrar at the Smithsonian accepted as a transfer from the War Department, the skin and skull of Kidron. These remains are now part of the research collection of the Division of Mammals in the National Museum of Natural History.

Haleb
Accession No. 52188
Catalogue No. 172454

Also known as the "Pride of the Desert," this Arabian horse beat 19 Morgan horses winning the Justin Morgan Cup in Vermont on June 1907.

He was brown, without white markings, stood 14.2 hands high and weighed 960 pounds. According to his owner, Homer Davenport, the horse was acquired on August 8, 1900, from Nazim Pasha, the governor of Syria and Aleppo, who had received it from the supreme sheik of the Anezeh. The origin of the stallion was cited as Mesopotamia (Anezeh Arabians). He was supposedly bred by the Gomussa tribe of the Sebba Anezeh. His mother was the last of the distinguished Maneghi Sbeyel mares, tracing back more than 500 years, and his sire was a stallion of the family of Sueyman Sebba of the southern desert.

After Haleb's death on November 10, 1909, at the age of 8, his skull and partial skeleton, prepared by Ward's Natural Science Establishment in Rochester, New York, were donated to the Smithsonian by Davenport. The Division of Mammals assigned a catalogue number to the specimen on December 9, 1910, and placed it in the research collection.

Old Henry Clay
Accession No. 10191
Catalogue No. 21876

Old Henry Clay, often called "America's National Thoroughbred Trotting Horse" or "Father of American Trotting Horses," was foaled on Long Island in 1837 and purchased by Colonel William W. Wadsworth of Seneso, Livingston County, New York. When his days as a famous trotting horse were over, he was used for breeding and finally died at Lodi, New York in the spring of 1867. In life the horse stood 15 1/4 hands high. (61 inches)

Some 14 years after his burial, Old Henry Clay's bones were dug up and his skeleton mounted by Ward's Natural Science Establishment in Rochester, New York. The skeleton was donated to the United States National Museum on April 22, 1881, by the Honorable Erastus Corning and Henry C. Jewett through the auspices of Randolph Huntington.

Only the mandible, a part of the skull, remains as a remnant of Old Henry Clay. It is kept in the research collection at the Smithsonian's Museum Support Center in Suitland, Maryland.

Sysonby
AMNH No. 204061
Chubb No. 61

The American Museum of Natural History in New York City (which is not part of the Smithsonian Institution) is home for the skeleton of famous racehorse Sysonby. From 1904, as a two-year old, to 1906, his series of victories assured him a place in racehorse history.

The horse died June 1906 at the age of 4 years and 4 months, and his remains were donated to the Museum in July of that year by James R. Keene. Funds for the skeletal preparation were also provided. In 1908, S. Harmsted Chubb, anatomist and research associate at the Museum, mounted the skeleton to demonstrate a phase in the stride of a running horse. The Chubb series of skeletons are famous as studies in anatomy and locomotion.

Currently, Sysonby is in the storage area of the Museum with other horses of the Chubb Collection.

The skeleton of Hanover, another famous racehorse, is at the University of Kentucky in Lexington.

Traveller, famous as General Robert E. Lee's horse, died in 1872, two years after Lee. Initially the horse was buried, but in response to numerous requests, it was disinterred and the skeleton mounted and displayed at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia. After more than 60 years on exhibit, on May 8, 1971, the horse was reburied outside the Lee Chapel at the University close to the Lee family crypt.

Defeat rather than victory brought fame to Comanche. He was known as the sole survivor of General George Custer's command at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on June 25, 1876.

Of mustang lineage, he was born about 1862, captured in a wild horse roundup, gelded and sold to the U.S. Army Cavalry on April 3, 1868, for $90. The bay, 925 pounds, standing 15 hands high with a small white star on his forehead, became the favorite mount for Captain Myles Keogh of the 7th Cavalry. He participated in frequent actions of the Regiment and sustained some 12 wounds as a result of these skirmishes.

Two days after the Custer defeat, a burial party investigating the site found the severely wounded horse and transported him by steamer to Fort Lincoln, 950 miles away, where he spent the next year recuperating. Comanche remained here with the 7th Cavalry, never again to be ridden and under orders excusing him from all duties. Most of the time he freely roamed the Post and flower gardens. Only at formal regimental functions was he led, draped in black, stirrups and boots reversed, at the head of the Regiment.

When the Cavalry was ordered to Fort Riley, Kansas, in 1888, Comanche, aging but still in good health, accompanied them and continued to receive full honors as a symbol of the tragedy at Little Bighorn. Finally, on November 7, 1891, about 29 years old, Comanche died of colic.

The officers of the 7th Cavalry, wanting to preserve the horse, asked Lewis Lindsay Dyche of the University of Kansas to mount the remains: skin and major bones. For a fee of $400 and on condition that he be permitted to show the horse in the Chicago Exposition of 1893, Dyche completed the appropriate taxidermy. Although there is no record of the fee being paid, the horse was donated to the university's Museum and property rights are vested in the University through L.L. Dyche.

Comanche is currently on display in a humidity controlled glass case at the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Dyche Hall, Lawrence, Kansas.

Little Sorrel

Little Sorrel, or "Fancy" as he was known, became famous as the mount of General Stonewall Jackson. Captured at Harpers Ferry by the Confederates, he was chosen initially for Mrs. Jackson but eventually commandeered by the General when his own horse, Big Sorrel, proved unreliable in battle.

In 1863, at Chancellorsville, Jackson, while riding the horse, was wounded by his own men and died a few days later. At first Little Sorrel was pastured at Mrs. Jackson's home in North Carolina, later sent as a mascot to the Virginia Military Institute where the General had taught cadets he led to battle, and then in response to requests from many Southern States, was shown at fairs and exhibitions.

In 1885, ancient and infirm at the age of 35, he was retired to the Confederate Soldier's Home. The following year he died when the hoist used to lift him to his feet slipped he fell breaking his back. Little Sorrel was stuffed and housed in a museum at the Veterans Home until 1949 when he was finally returned to V.M.I. Refurbished twice since 1886, Little Sorrel is presently on display at the Virginia Military Institute's Museum in Lexington, Virginia.

Neither a racehorse nor the mount of a famous general, Trigger, owned by movie star cowboy Roy Rogers, brought pleasure and excitement to countless motion picture patrons.

The golden palomino stallion appeared in all of Rogers' 90 feature films and 101 television shows. According to his owner, "He had great rein and could spin on a dime." Inheriting the best characteristics of his sire, a thoroughbred racehorse, and his dam, a golden palomino, Trigger had stamina, beauty, intelligence, and a remarkably gentle disposition.

On July 3, 1965, at the Rogers ranch in Hidden Valley, California, Trigger, 33, succumbed to old age. Reluctant to "put him in the ground," Rogers had the horse mounted in a rearing position by Bishoff's Taxidermy of California.

Trigger, in full regalia - bridle, saddle, and martingale - is presently on exhibit at the Roy Rogers - Dale Evans Museum in Branson, Missouri, the repository for the Rogers memorabilia.

Information on Sysonby, courtesy of the Department of Mammalogy,
American Museum of Natural History, New York, N.Y.

Information on Comanche, courtesy
of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Lawrence, Kansas.

Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Vertebrate Zoology Section,
National Museum of Natural History, in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services, Smithsonian Institution


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1 Bamen

If a samurai would cover himself in terrifying representations of folklore and nature, he would naturally want the same for his horse. o bamen (&ldquohorse mask&rdquo) and bagai (&ldquohorse armor&rdquo) were used by samurai after the 17th century.

The armor was crafted from many small tiles of leather and gold that were sewn into cloth. The mask was made from boiled leather that was then shaped into the likeness of a horse or dragons, complete with horns, scales, and fiery red nostrils. The entire battle-ready horse and rider conveyed the owner&rsquos prestige and power.


Assista o vídeo: Cavalaria Ligeira - Franz Von Suppé Orquestra Petrobras Sinfônica